Morphological and biochemical characterization of the cornified envelopes from human epidermal keratinocytes of different origin.

@article{Michel1988MorphologicalAB,
  title={Morphological and biochemical characterization of the cornified envelopes from human epidermal keratinocytes of different origin.},
  author={Serge Michel and Rainer Schmidt and Braham Shroot and Uwe Reichert},
  journal={The Journal of investigative dermatology},
  year={1988},
  volume={91 1},
  pages={
          11-5
        }
}
The formation of a cornified envelope (CE) is a major event in the terminal differentiation of epidermal cells. Nomarski contrast microscopy of the envelopes purified from different sources reveals the existence of two major, but morphologically distinct classes: the very irregularily shaped fragile type CEf, and the polygonal rigid type CEr. Human keratinocytes in submerged culture are only able to produce type CEf. Specimens from healthy human epidermis contain largely type CEr. Psoriatic… Expand
Cornified envelopes in congenital disorders of keratinization
TLDR
A morphological and biochemical analysis was made of cornified envelopes isolated from patients with different congenital disorders, showing that their morphology was not greatly altered in several types of keratoderma and parapsoriasis, but it was grossly modified in ichthyotic disorders. Expand
The cornified cell envelope: an important marker of stratum corneum maturation in healthy and dry skin
TLDR
Examination of morphological and physical changes occurring in the CE during the terminal differentiation indicates that the normal process of CE maturation is associated with an actual strengthening of this insoluble protective structure and that the impairment of this process isassociated with poor quality of the stratum corneum. Expand
Differences in involucrin immunolabeling within cornified cell envelopes in normal and psoriatic epidermis.
TLDR
It is suggested that in normal skin, involucrin is the major constituent of the CE only in its early stages of assembly, whereas in psoriatic skin, CE formation seems to be initiated prematurely in psoriasis. Expand
Identification of immature cornified envelopes in the barrier‐impaired epidermis by characterization of their hydrophobicity and antigenicities of the components
TLDR
The results suggest that involucrin‐positive, fragile CEs are immature and less hydrophobic, and that their occurrence is closely related to impairment of the barrier function of the skin. Expand
Immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cornified cell envelope formation in normal and psoriatic epidermis.
TLDR
It is suggested that formation of CE occurs sequentially, initially involving involucrin deposition and subsequently involving loricrin incorporation, and Psoriatic epidermis demonstrates a lack of proper CE maturation. Expand
Involucrin is a covalently crosslinked constituent of highly purified epidermal corneocytes: evidence for a common pattern of involucrin crosslinking in vivo and in vitro.
TLDR
A population of the envelope-associated hINV present in cultured and in vivo keratinocytes is crosslinked in the amino-terminal half, and it is possible that this species represents an early intermediate in the involucrin crosslinking process. Expand
Immunocytochemical evidence for a possible role of cross-linked keratinocyte envelopes in stratum corneum cohesion.
TLDR
It is concluded that the cytoskeletal and desmosomal components become "embedded" in the highly cross-linked cornified envelope structures during the process of keratinocyte terminal differentiation, which underlines the central role of cornified envelopes in the physical resistance of superficial epidermal layers and indicates a possible importance of junctional proteins in this function. Expand
Carbohydrate expression and modification during keratinocyte differentiation in normal human and reconstructed epidermis
TLDR
Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)‐labeled lectins, the presence of specific carbohydrate moieties in normal human and reconstructed epidermis indicates that modifications of the sugar residues might be important in epidermal homeostasis, barrier behavior and desquamation. Expand
The human epidermal differentiation complex: cornified envelope precursors, S100 proteins and the ‘fused genes’ family
TLDR
The importance of the EDC is further reflected by human diseases: FLG mutations are the strongest risk factor for atopic dermatitis and for AD‐associated asthma, and faulty CE formation caused by TG1 deficiency causes life‐threatening lamellar ichthyosis. Expand
Protein composition of cornified cell envelopes of epidermal keratinocytes.
TLDR
The amino acid compositions of isolated CEs are determined and then modelled in terms of linear combinations of the candidate proteins, showing that stratum corneum CEs have a loricrin content of 65-70% (w/w) in human, and 80-85% in mouse. Expand
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References

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The cornified envelope of terminally differentiated human epidermal keratinocytes consists of cross-linked protein
TLDR
The properties of the cornified envelopes (insolubility in detergent and reducing agents, and solubility following proteolytic digestion) are readily explained by a structure consisting of a cross-linked protein lattice. Expand
Terminal differentiation of cultured human epidermal cells
Abstract Three aspects of terminal differentiation of the epidermal keratinocyte have been studied in cell culture—the development of detergent-insoluble cytoplasmic filaments, the formation of aExpand
Effect of retinoic acid on cornified envelope formation: difference between spontaneous envelope formation in vivo or in vitro and expression of envelope competence.
TLDR
Results indicate that the cross-linked envelopes formed in RA-treated cells after permeabilization lack a set of proteins contained in CEs from stratum corneum and may even be composed of different proteins. Expand
Participation of membrane-associated proteins in the formation of the cross-linked envelope of the keratinocyte
TLDR
It is shown that when transglutaminase is activated in cultured keratinocytes, at least six other proteins also become nonextractable, in contrast to involucrin, which is associated with membranes. Expand
Seria cultivation of strains of human epidemal keratinocytes: the formation keratinizin colonies from single cell is
TLDR
Human diploid epidermis epidermal cells have been successfully grown in serial culture and it is possible to isolate keratinocyte clones free of viable fibroblasts, and human diploids keratinocytes appear to have a finite culture lifetime. Expand
A STUDY OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE CORNIFIED EPITHELIUM OF HUMAN SKIN
TLDR
Epidermal keratin was found to form an oriented and dense submicroscopic structure in the cornified cells and showed high resistance toward strong acid and moderately strong alkali solutions as well as concentrated urea. Expand
Identification and subcellular distribution of cornified envelope precursor proteins in the transformed human keratinocyte line SV-K14.
TLDR
C cyanogen bromide cleavage of purified envelopes from transformed and normal keratinocytes revealed a completely different peptide pattern, indicating that the exact molecular composition of the cornified envelope may not be strictly determined and may vary according to the availability of potential substrate proteins at the very moment when the cross-linking enzyme, the plasma membrane associated transglutaminase, becomes functional. Expand
Localization and in vivo activity of epidermal transglutaminase.
TLDR
In vivo enzyme activity was found to be restricted to one, or at most two, cell layers at the interface of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum and to coincide with the layer in which the antigenicity of involucrin, a natural substrate of epidermal transglutaminase, disappeared. Expand
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TLDR
It is shown that transformation by SV40 results in the coordinate reexpression of a whole set of fetal characters, including a set of three keratin polypeptides, which is present in much larger amounts in SVK14 cells than in HE-SV cells. Expand
Evidence that the corneocyte has a chemically bound lipid envelope.
TLDR
From the results of in situ derivatization of these lipids and the construction of molecular models, it is inferred that the bound lipids exist in ester linkage with protein on the surface of the corneocyte envelope and form a lipid envelope for each corneocytes. Expand
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