Morphological Integration and Variation in Facial Orientation in Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus: A Geometric Morphometric Approach via Partial Least Squares


The orientation of the face relative to the cranial base is an important aspect of intraspecific and interspecific variation in hominoids. In contrast to African apes, Pongo is characterized by a structural condition known as airorhynchy, an upwardly rotated face relative to the basicranium. In this study we investigated patterns of covariation between… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10764-015-9837-1

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