Morphological Correlates of the Grooming Claw in Distal Phalanges of Platyrrhines and Other Primates: A Preliminary Study

@article{Maiolino2011MorphologicalCO,
  title={Morphological Correlates of the Grooming Claw in Distal Phalanges of Platyrrhines and Other Primates: A Preliminary Study},
  author={Stephanie A. Maiolino and Doug M. Boyer and Alfred L. Rosenberger},
  journal={The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={294}
}
Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those… 
Evidence for a Grooming Claw in a North American Adapiform Primate: Implications for Anthropoid Origins
Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal
Oldest evidence for grooming claws in euprimates.
TLDR
Both the phylogenetic distribution and antiquity of primate grooming phalanges now strongly suggest that ancestral euprimates had grooming claws, that these structures were modified from a primitive claw rather than a flat nail, and that the evolutionary loss of 'grooming claws' represents an apomorphy for crown anthropoids.
Pedal distal phalanges of the Eocene adapoids Europolemur and Darwinius compared to phalanges of Notharctus and other primates
TLDR
A detailed system of morphological types is established that differentiates pedal distal phalanges in adapoids, and it is shown that both species of Europolemur had a differentiated grooming claw.
Phalangeal morphology of Shanghuang fossil primates.
TLDR
Hundreds of isolated phalanges attributed to middle Eocene fossil primates from the Shanghuang fissure-fillings are described, suggesting long fingers and toes for the fossil primates of Shanghaung, and their digit morphology implies arboreality with well-developed digital flexion and strong, grasping hands and feet.
The Evolution of Grooming and Hand Use in Primates: An Interdisciplinary Perspective
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians
Do saki monkeys possess a grooming claw?
TLDR
Qualitative findings from different species of saki monkeys, genus Pithecia, on the presence of modified nails on the second toe suggest that a grooming claw or a grooming claws-like nail occurs in different Pitheia species, but that it does not consistently occur in all individuals.
Comparative Morphology of Primate Distal Phalanges: Implications for Early Primate Evolution and the Origins of the Primate Nail
TLDR
Middle phalanx morphology reflects postural differences of primate grooming and nail-bearing digits and is related to the use of a terminal branch niche in non-primate mammals.
Evolutionary Morphology, Platyrrhine Evolution, and Systematics
TLDR
The view that platyrrhines are a coherent ecophylogenetic array that differentiated along niche dimensions definable principally by body size, positional behavior, and feeding strategies is reinforced.
Primates (Lemurs, Lorises, Tarsiers, Monkeys and Apes)
TLDR
Although they arose from different ancestral stocks and display their own distinctive character, each radiation exhibits parallel evolution in dietary, locomotory and social adaptation to a treed environment, and all exhibit the universal primate characteristics of grasping big toes, some form of manual prehension and a preference for eating fruits – except for the exclusively predaceous tarsiers.
Comment to “Primates in the Eocene” by Gingerich (2012)
TLDR
The analyses provided in Maiolino et al. (2012) demonstrate quite conclusively, both metrically and visually, that pedal distal phalanges bearing grooming claws are readily separated from other unguis forms on the basis of facet-shaft angle (FSA), volar feature length (VFL), and other distinctive measures.
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