Geniposide ameliorates cognitive deficits by attenuating the cholinergic defect and amyloidosis in middle-aged Alzheimer model mice.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and multiple distinct neuropathological features. Currently, there are no available therapies to delay or block the disease progression. Thus, the disease-modifying therapies are urgent for this devastating disorder by simultaneously targeting multiple distinct pathological processes. Morin, a natural bioflavonoid, have been shown to be strongly neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first investigated the disease-modifying effects of chronic morin administration on the neuropathological and cognitive impairments in APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice. Our results showed that chronic morin administration prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Morin treatment in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice markedly reduced cerebral Aβ production and Aβ plaque burden via promoting non-amyloidogenic APP processing pathway by increasing ADAM10 expression, inhibiting amyloidogenic APP processing pathway by decreased BACE1 and PS1 expression, and facilitating Aβ degradation by enhancing Aβ-degrading enzyme expression. In addition, we also found that morin treatment in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice markedly decreased tau hyperphosphorylation via its inhibitory effect on CDK5 signal pathway. Furthermore, morin treatment in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice markedly reduced the activated glial cells and increased the expression of synaptic markers. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that chronic morin treatment restores cognitive functions and reverses multiple distinct neuropathological AD-like hallmarks in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. This study provides novel insights into the neuroprotective actions and neurobiological mechanisms of morin against AD, suggesting that morin is a potently promising disease-modifying agent for treatment of AD.