More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment

  title={More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment},
  author={Gerd Kempermann and Hans Georg Kuhn and Fred H. Gage},
Neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus throughout the life of a rodent1–4, but the function of these new neurons and the mechanisms that regulate their birth are unknown. Here we show that significantly more new neurons exist in the dentate gyrus of mice exposed to an enriched environment compared with littermates housed in standard cages. We also show, using unbiased stereology, that the enriched mice have a larger hippocampal granule cell layer and 15 per cent more… 

Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

Recent findings regarding the developmental steps involved in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are summarized and the possible functional roles that new hippocampal neurons might play are summarized.

Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

It is reported that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells.

Development of neural circuits in the adult hippocampus.

Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

The dentate gyrus (DG) contains one of the few neuronal populations in the mammalian brain that are generated throughout life and some of the methods most commonly used for studying these processes.

Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation

It is reported that the number of adult-generated neurons doubles in the rat dentate gyrus in response to training on associative learning tasks that require the hippocampus, which indicates that adult- generated hippocampal neurons are specifically affected by, and potentially involved in, associative memory formation.

Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus

It is demonstrated that new neurons, as defined by these markers, are generated from dividing progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of adult humans, indicating that the human hippocampus retains its ability to generate neurons throughout life.

Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood

Integration of New Neurons into the Adult Hippocampus

The process of integration of newborn neurons into the neural circuitry of the hippocampus in adult rodents is described and how hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by the neural network activity is discussed.

Differential neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus: an identifiable zone that consistently lacks neurogenesis

An area located at the anterior pole of the dentate gyrus that consistently lacks neurogenesis is described, and it is proposed that this region may provide a valuable model system to discern the factors that regulate the process of Neurogenesis.



Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation

It is confirmed that in the adult rat brain, neuronal progenitor cells divide at the border between the hilus and the granule cell layer (GCL) and in adult rats, the progeny of these cells migrate into the GCL and express the neuronal markers NeuN and calbindin-D28k.

Changes in hippocampal neuronal nuclei in response to environmental stimulation.

It is proposed that increased variability in nuclear size in the hippocampus reflects an environmentally restricted development of these neurons.

Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

It is postulated that undifferentiated cells migrate postnatally from the forebrain ventricles to the hippocampus where they become differentiated, implicating that they may function as receptors of gonadal hormones.

Regulation of adult neurogenesis by excitatory input and NMDA receptor activation in the dentate gyrus

The results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat is altered by afferent input, via NMDA receptors, and may be regulated naturally by endogenous excitatory amino acids.

FGF-2-Responsive Neuronal Progenitors Reside in Proliferative and Quiescent Regions of the Adult Rodent Brain

The fact that cells isolated from the septum and striatum proliferate and have the ability to differentiate into neurons once they are removed from their local environment indicates that neurogenesis may be restricted to discrete areas of the developing and the adult brain by regional differences in regulatory signals rather than from an absence of progenitors capable of responding to neurogenic cues.

The effects of environmental complexity on the histology of the rat hippocampus

Differntial cell counts demonstrated significant differences in neuroglia in the hippocampus in the environmental complexity rats than in the isolation control animals.

Effect of neonatal handling on age-related impairments associated with the hippocampus.

A subtle manipulation early in life can retard the emergence of a complex degenerative cascade of aging in the rat, including glucocorticoid hypersecretion, hippocampal neuron death, and cognitive impairments.