More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression

@article{Matsumoto1992MoreEF,
  title={More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression},
  author={David Matsumoto},
  journal={Motivation and Emotion},
  year={1992},
  volume={16},
  pages={363-368}
}
  • D. Matsumoto
  • Published 1 December 1992
  • Psychology
  • Motivation and Emotion
Since its publication in 1986, Ekman and Friesen's (1986) discovery of a universal facial expression unique to contempt has received considerable attention (e.g., see Ekman & Friesen, 1988; Ekman & Heider, 1988; Ekman, O'Sullivan, & Matsumoto, 1991a, 1991b; Izard & Haynes, 1988; Russell, 1991a, 1991b; Ricci Bitti, Brighetti, Garotti, Boggi-Cavallo, 1989). Actually, much of this argument began before there was adequate sampling of contempt photographs across many cultures. In order to address… Expand
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TLDR
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Commentary on “a new series of slides depicting facial expressions of affect” by Mazurski and Bond (1993)
Abstract Mazurski and Bond (1993) reported on the development of a new series of slides of facial expressions of emotion that improved on Ekman and Friesen's (1976) Pictures of Facial Affect. TheyExpand
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References

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On the form and universality of the contempt expression: A challenge to Ekman and Friesen's claim of discovery
The claim of Ekman and Friesen (1986, “A New Pan- Cultural Facial Expression of Emotion,”Motivation and Emotion, 10, 159–168) that they have found the first empirical support for the existence of aExpand
The contempt expression and the relativity thesis
Ekman and Freisen (1986) reported a highly recognizable, pancultural facial expression unique to contempt. This article reports three studies in which the emotion inferred from that expression, aExpand
Negative results on a reported facial expression of contempt
Ekman and Friesen (1986) claimed to have discovered a facial expression, a unilateral lip curl, universally recognized as conveying contempt. Their conclusion was based on a series of labelingExpand
The universality of a contempt expression: A replication
Two experiments replicated Ekman and Friesen's finding of an expression that signals contempt across cultures. The subjects, from West Sumatra, Indonesia, were members of a culture that differs in aExpand
Confusions about context in the judgment of facial expression: A reply to “the contempt expression and the relativity thesis”
A recent study of the effect of context in the judgment of contempt facial expression (Russell, 1991) was flawed by several confusions about what constitutes context. We argue that the context usedExpand
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TLDR
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We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R.,Expand
Contradictions in the study of contempt: What's it all about? Reply to Russell
A number of methodological problems make it difficult to draw any conclusions from Russell's studies of contempt, including a task which may maximize the influence of unfamiliarity with the task, andExpand
Who knows what about contempt: A reply to Izard and Haynes
Izard and Haynes question our findings and claims for disovery because they did not consider the difference between a one-to-one and one-to-many relationship between a sign (the facial expression)Expand
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