Eukaryotic cysteine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, named ADP-ribosyltransferase C (Tanuma, S., Kawashima, K. and Endo, H. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5485-5489), attenuates inhibition of adenylate cyclase in human platelet membranes by epinephrine. This attenuation appeared to result from mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation by ADP-ribosyltransferase C of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gi) of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate a role of ADP-ribosyltransferase C in regulation of hormonal control of the adenylate cyclase system.