Impact of Microdialysis Probes on Vasculature and Dopamine in the Rat Striatum: a Combined Fluorescence and Voltammetric Study and The Design and Optimization of a Glutamate Sensor to be used under Hypoxic Conditions
This paper describes electrochemical microsensors for the in vivo measurement of glutamate and ascorbate in the extracellular space of brain tissue. To prepare glutamate microsensors, carbon fiber microelectrodes (10 microns in diameter and 300-400 microns long) were modified with a cross-linked redox polymer film containing enzymes. The microsensors were coated with a thin Nafion film before use. The glutamate microsensors were both selective and sensitive toward glutamate, with detection limits in the low micromolar range. Physiologically relevant concentrations of several electroactive compounds found in brain tissue produced no response at the glutamate microsensors and also did not affect their glutamate response, the only exception being glutamine, for which a small response was observed in the absence, but not in the presence, of glutamate. The ascorbate microsensors were used in conjunction with cyclic voltammetry. They were sensitive and selective toward ascorbate, but did exhibit a small sensitivity toward the dopamine metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The in vivo measurements performed establish the ability of the glutamate microsensors to monitor the component of the basal extracellular glutamate level that is derived from the neuronal activity of brain tissue.