Monitoring and distribution patterns of pesticide residues in soil from cotton/wheat fields of Pakistan.


The excessive use of hazardous pesticides for massive cotton and wheat production has deteriorated the quality of Okara district's soil. Thus, in order to sustain the production of good-quality food, it is essential to determine the residue levels of pesticides in the agricultural soil and define their possible sources. Thus, the present study focused on the determination of selected pesticides in the soil samples obtained from cotton/wheat fields by using the modified multi-residue pesticide analysis method based on GCMS and HPLC-UV. Most of soil samples were found to be highly contaminated with imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and α-cypermethrin residues. Selected pesticides were significantly correlated with each other at p < 0.05 except imidacloprid, which was negatively correlated with triazophos, MCPA methyl ester, selected pyrethroid pesticides, and their metabolite. Soil pH and phosphate levels were significantly positively correlated while sulfate content was negatively correlated with most of selected pesticides. The varimax normalized factor analysis divides the selected pesticides to the two major factors that explained 87.19% of the total variance which evidenced that pesticide in the same cluster shared a common source in the soil. A significant negative correlation of chlorpyrifos in the second factor pointed towards a source different from other pesticides. Factor and cluster analysis indicated that sulfate levels of soil positively affected the persistence/ mobility of imidacloprid.

Cite this paper

@article{Rafique2016MonitoringAD, title={Monitoring and distribution patterns of pesticide residues in soil from cotton/wheat fields of Pakistan.}, author={Nazia Rafique and Saadia Rashid Tariq and Dildar Ahmed}, journal={Environmental monitoring and assessment}, year={2016}, volume={188 12}, pages={695} }