In order to successfully monitor a large-scale distributed system, it is an important issue that the monitoring function fully covers all the entities in the system. To this end, a key challenge is to efficiently transmit state information of the entities in the system. This paper solves this challenge from two aspects. First, in virtue of the idea of self-organizing networks, this paper proposes a neighborhood organization algorithm, which self-organizes the nodes into several monitoring neighborhoods based on the t distance between nodes. The second aspect focuses on message transmission. There are three common message transmission methods in network, i.e., flooding, multicast and unicast. Flooding may cause high network overhead, while unicast may pose high system delay. Based on the idea of Gossip protocol, this paper proposes a directional message dissemination algorithm (D-Gossip), which is a kind of probabilistic multicast. D-Gossip reduces message dissemination uncertainty of traditional Gossip protocols. It effectively improves the efficiency and coverage of message dissemination, while reducing redundant information in the system due to Gossip protocol. The experimental results show that the neighborhood organization algorithm and the DGossip can effectively solve the above challenge.