Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.

@article{Hellmich2001MonarchLS,
  title={Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.},
  author={Richard L. Hellmich and Blair D. Siegfried and Mark K. Sears and D E Stanley-Horn and Michael J. Daniels and Heather R. Mattila and T. Michael Spencer and Keith G. Bidne and Leslie C. Lewis},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2001},
  volume={98 21},
  pages={
          11925-30
        }
}
Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt… CONTINUE READING

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