Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America

@article{Bartel2011MonarchBM,
  title={Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America},
  author={Rebecca A. Bartel and Karen S. Oberhauser and Jacobus C. de Roode and Sonia Altizer},
  journal={Ecology},
  year={2011},
  volume={92},
  pages={342 - 351}
}
Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to… 

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