Mollusk Shell Acidic Proteins: In Search of Individual Functions

  title={Mollusk Shell Acidic Proteins: In Search of Individual Functions},
  author={Bat Ami Gotliv and Lia Addadi and Steve Weiner},
Acidic proteins play a major role in the biomineralization process. These proteins are generally thought to control mineral formation and growth. Thus, characterization of individual acidic proteins is important as a first step toward linking function to individual proteins, which is our ultimate goal. In order to characterize the protein(s) responsible for the assemblage of biominerals, a new gel electrophoresis fixing and staining protocol was developed and many, if not all of the acidic… 
Asprich mollusk shell protein: in vitro experiments aimed at elucidating function in CaCO3 crystallization
Acidic proteins are key components of the organic matrix of many biologically formed minerals and are therefore thought to play an important role in their formation. Here we study the effect of one
A basic protein, N25, from a mollusk modifies calcium carbonate morphology and shell biomineralization
It is proposed that the attachment of N25 to specific sites on CaCO3 crystals may inhibit some crystal polymorphs or morphological transformation, and provide evidence that basic proteins lacking acidic groups can also direct biomineralization.
A crystal modulating protein from molluscan nacre that limits the growth of calcite in vitro
It is identified that the mineral modification activity of AP7 is localized to the unstructured, conformationally labile N-terminal subdomain, and it is likely that the AP7 protein possesses multifunctional capabilities with regard to nacre formation within the mollusk shell.
Mineral-Chitin Composites in Molluscs
  • I. Weiss
  • Biology
    Biologically-Inspired Systems
  • 2019
This chapter aims at closing conceptual gaps related to the biological dynamics of transmembrane myosin chitin synthases, with their cytoskeleton-based signaling potential for regulating microvilli and extracellular pattern formation on multi-scale levels.
Thermodynamic Aspects of Molluscan Shell Ultrastructural Morphogenesis
Over the years, molluscan shells have become an exemplar model system to study the process of mineral formation by living organisms, the process of biomineralization. Typically, the shells consist of
A Novel Acidic Matrix Protein, PfN44, Stabilizes Magnesium Calcite to Inhibit the Crystallization of Aragonite*
The results suggested that by stabilizing magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition, PfN44 participated in P. fucata shell formation and extended the understanding of the connections between matrix proteins and magnesium.


Control of crystal phase switching and orientation by soluble mollusc-shell proteins
IN the initial stages of the biomineralization of abalone shells, a primer layer of oriented calcite crystals grows on a nucleating protein sheet1,2. The deposition of this primer is followed by an
Primary structure of a soluble matrix protein of scallop shell: Implications for calcium carbonate biomineralization
N-terminal sequencing of the three proteins revealed that all three share the same amino acid sequence at least for the first 20 residues, demanding revision of previous theories of protein-mineral interactions.
A carbonic anhydrase from the nacreous layer in oyster pearls.
The findings suggest that nacrein actually functions as a matrix protein whose repeated Gly-Xaa-Asn domain possibly binds calcium and as a carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes the HCO3- formation, thus participating in calcium carbonate crystal formation of the nacreous layer.
Polysaccharides of Intracrystalline Glycoproteins Modulate Calcite Crystal Growth In Vitro
Assemblies of glycoproteins from within the mineralized tissues of sea urchins and mollusks both interact in vit- ro in a similar manner with growing cal- cite crystals. A protein-rich fraction, a
Control Over Aragonite Crystal Nucleation and Growth: An In Vitro Study of Biomineralization
Control over calcium carbonate deposition in an in vitro system containing the major macromolecular components present in mollusk shell is shown to depend on the presence of a specific protein
Structure of the nacreous organic matrix of a bivalve mollusk shell examined in the hydrated state using cryo-TEM.
This work suggests that at least prior to mineralization the silk is in the form of a hydrated gel, which significantly changes previous models of the matrix structure and hence hypotheses pertaining to the mechanisms by which mineral formation occurs.
Structures of mollusc shell framework proteins
The sequences and structures of the framework proteins for the nacreous and prismatic layers of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, are reported.
Molecular mechanism of the nacreous layer formation in Pinctada maxima.
The in vitro crystallization experiments revealed that the mixture of N66 and N14 could induce platy aragonite layers highly similar to the nacreous layer, once adsorbed onto the membrane of the water-insoluble matrix.
Interactions of sea-urchin skeleton macromolecules with growing calcite crystals— a study of intracrystalline proteins
The exoskeletons of sea urchins are composed of magnesiumbearing calcite. Individual test plates and spines behave as single crystals in polarized light or when examined by X-ray diffraction1–3. They