Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VII. Substellar O/H and C/H and Superstellar C/O in Planet-feeding Gas

@article{Bosman2021MoleculesWA,
  title={Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VII. Substellar O/H and C/H and Superstellar C/O in Planet-feeding Gas},
  author={Arthur D. Bosman and Felipe Alarc'on and Edwin A. Bergin and Ke Zhang and Merel L. R. van’t Hoff and Karin I. {\"O}berg and Viviana V. Guzm{\'a}n and Catherine Walsh and Yuri Aikawa and Sean M. Andrews and Jennifer B. Bergner and Alice S. Booth and Gianni Cataldi and L. Ilsedore Cleeves and Ian Czekala and Kenji Furuya and Jane Huang and John D. Ilee and Charles J. Law and Romane Le Gal and Yao Liu and Feng Long and Ryan A. Loomis and François M{\'e}nard and Hideko Nomura and Chunhua Qi and Kamber R. Schwarz and Richard Teague and Takashi Tsukagoshi and Yoshihide Yamato and David J. Wilner},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series},
  year={2021},
  volume={257}
}
The elemental composition of the gas and dust in a protoplanetary disk influences the compositions of the planets that form in it. We use the Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) data to constrain the elemental composition of the gas at the locations of potentially forming planets. The elemental abundances are inferred by comparing source-specific gas-grain thermochemical models with variable C/O ratios and small-grain abundances from the DALI code with CO and C2H column… Expand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VIII. CO Gap in AS 209—Gas Depletion or Chemical Processing?
Emission substructures in gas and dust are common in protoplanetary disks. Such substructures can be linked to planet formation or planets themselves. We explore the observed gas substructures in ASExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XV. Tracing Protoplanetary Disk Structure within 20 au
  • A. Bosman, E. Bergin, +30 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Constraining the distribution of gas and dust in the inner 20 au of protoplanetary disks is difficult. At the same time, this region is thought to be responsible for most planet formation, especiallyExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). I. Program Overview and Highlights
  • K. Öberg, V. Guzmán, +35 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Planets form and obtain their compositions in dust- and gas-rich disks around young stars, and the outcome of this process is intimately linked to the disk chemical properties. The distributions ofExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). X. Studying Deuteration at High Angular Resolution toward Protoplanetary Disks
Deuterium fractionation is dependent on various physical and chemical parameters. Thus, the formation location and thermal history of material in the solar system is often studied by measuring itsExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VI. Distribution of the Small Organics HCN, C2H, and H2CO
Small organic molecules, such as C2H, HCN, and H2CO, are tracers of the C, N, and O budget in protoplanetary disks. We present high-angular-resolution (10–50 au) observations of C2H, HCN, and H2COExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XIII. HCO+ and Disk Ionization Structure
We observed HCO+ J = 1 − 0 and H13CO+ J = 1 − 0 emission toward the five protoplanetary disks around IM Lup, GM Aur, AS 209, HD 163296, and MWC 480 as part of the MAPS project. HCO+ is detected andExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). III. Characteristics of Radial Chemical Substructures
  • C. Law, R. Loomis, +32 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
The Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) Large Program provides a detailed, high-resolution (∼10–20 au) view of molecular line emission in five protoplanetary disks at spatial scalesExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XIX. Spiral Arms, a Tail, and Diffuse Structures Traced by CO around the GM Aur Disk
  • Jane Huang, E. Bergin, +28 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
The concentric gaps and rings commonly observed in protoplanetary disks in millimeter continuum emission have lent the impression that planet formation generally proceeds within orderly, isolatedExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XII. Inferring the C/O and S/H Ratios in Protoplanetary Disks with Sulfur Molecules
  • R. Le Gal, K. Öberg, +24 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Sulfur-bearing molecules play an important role in prebiotic chemistry and planet habitability. They are also proposed probes of chemical ages, elemental C/O ratio, and grain chemistry processing.Expand

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Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VIII. CO Gap in AS 209—Gas Depletion or Chemical Processing?
Emission substructures in gas and dust are common in protoplanetary disks. Such substructures can be linked to planet formation or planets themselves. We explore the observed gas substructures in ASExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XV. Tracing Protoplanetary Disk Structure within 20 au
  • A. Bosman, E. Bergin, +30 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Constraining the distribution of gas and dust in the inner 20 au of protoplanetary disks is difficult. At the same time, this region is thought to be responsible for most planet formation, especiallyExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). I. Program Overview and Highlights
  • K. Öberg, V. Guzmán, +35 authors Ke Zhang
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Planets form and obtain their compositions in dust- and gas-rich disks around young stars, and the outcome of this process is intimately linked to the disk chemical properties. The distributions ofExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). V. CO Gas Distributions
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  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • 2021
Here we present high-resolution (15–24 au) observations of CO isotopologue lines from the Molecules with ALMA on Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) ALMA Large Program. Our analysis employs observations ofExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). VI. Distribution of the Small Organics HCN, C2H, and H2CO
Small organic molecules, such as C2H, HCN, and H2CO, are tracers of the C, N, and O budget in protoplanetary disks. We present high-angular-resolution (10–50 au) observations of C2H, HCN, and H2COExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XVII. Determining the 2D Thermal Structure of the HD 163296 Disk
Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks is key to interpreting observations, predicting the physical and chemical evolution of the disk, and modeling planet formationExpand
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  • 2021
The Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) Large Program provides a unique opportunity to study the vertical distribution of gas, chemistry, and temperature in the protoplanetary disksExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales. XX. The Massive Disk around GM Aurigae
Gas mass remains one of the most difficult protoplanetary disk properties to constrain. With much of the protoplanetary disk too cold for the main gas constituent, H2, to emit, alternative tracersExpand
The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime
(Abridged) Near- to mid-IR observations of protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions (<10AU) are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disksExpand
Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XIII. HCO+ and Disk Ionization Structure
We observed HCO+ J = 1 − 0 and H13CO+ J = 1 − 0 emission toward the five protoplanetary disks around IM Lup, GM Aur, AS 209, HD 163296, and MWC 480 as part of the MAPS project. HCO+ is detected andExpand
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