As part of a selection strategy for artificial nucleic acids (XNA) (to be considered as potential new information systems in vivo), we have carried out a modelling study on cyclohexanyl nucleic acids (CNA) duplexes and hairpins. CNA may form a duplex as well as hairpin structures, having the carbocyclic nucleosides in the (4)C1 conformation (with equatorial basis). The geometry of ds CNA is close to that of a HNA:RNA duplex. We demonstrated that CNA triphosphates function as a substrate for polymerases. Modelling experiments indicate that the monomers are probably presented to the polymerase in the (1)C4 conformation.