Molecular phylogeny of the major arthropod groups indicates polyphyly of crustaceans and a new hypothesis for the origin of hexapods.

@article{Regier1997MolecularPO,
  title={Molecular phylogeny of the major arthropod groups indicates polyphyly of crustaceans and a new hypothesis for the origin of hexapods.},
  author={Jerome C. Regier and Jeffrey W. Shultz},
  journal={Molecular biology and evolution},
  year={1997},
  volume={14 9},
  pages={
          902-13
        }
}
A phylogeny of the arthropods was inferred from analyses of amino acid sequences derived from the nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1 alpha and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II using maximum-parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood methods. Analyses of elongation factor-1 alpha from 17 arthropods and 4 outgroup taxa recovered many arthropod clades supported by previous morphological studies, including Diplopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Hexapoda, Branchiopoda (Crustacea… 
Elongation Factor-2: A Useful Gene for Arthropod Phylogenetics
Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated
Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.
TLDR
Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater attention.
Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein–encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade
  • J. Shultz, J. C. Regier
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
TLDR
Results from maximum–parsimony and maximum–likelihood analyses strongly supported the existence of a Crustacea+ Hexapoda clade (Pancrustacea) over a Myriapoda + Hexapod clade(s) (Atelocerata) and the apparent incompatibility between the molecule–based Pancrustacea hypothesis and morphology–based AtelOCerata hypothesis is discussed.
A Review of Arthropod Phylogeny: New Data Based on Ribosomal DNA Sequences and Direct Character Optimization
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The high level of sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene makes placement of certain taxa with “unusual” sequences difficult and underscores the necessity of combining ribosomal gene data with other sources of information.
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  • Biology, Medicine
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  • 2003
TLDR
The 18S sequences were surprisingly conserved among pycnogonid taxa, suggesting either an unusual case of slow evolution of the gene, or an unexpected recent divergence of pycnOGonid lineages.
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This study combined complete 18S with partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to investigate the relations of basal hexapods, and found data are consistent with hexapod monophyly and Collembola grouped weakly with "Protura + Diplura" under most analytical conditions.
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This work presents strongly supported results from likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of over 41 kilobases of aligned DNA sequence from 62 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from 75 arthropod species, providing a statistically well-supported phylogenetic framework for the largest animal phylum.
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BRANCHIOPOD MONOPHYLY AND INTERORDINAL PHYLOGENY INFERRED FROM 18S RIBOSOMAL DNA
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It is proposed that the taxonomic heading “Cladocera” include a new taxon, Cyclesthera, equal in rank to the Gymnomera, which corroborates views based on morphological comparisons that the cladoceran lineage arose from a cyclestherid-like ancestor.
Ecdysozoan phylogeny and Bayesian inference: first use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences to classify the arthropods and their kin.
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Better taxonomic resolution and recovery of established taxa were obtained here, especially with Bayesian inference, than in previous parsimony-based studies that used 18S rRNA sequences, and should revive interest in using rRNA genes to study arthropod and ecdysozoan relationships.
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