Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies

  title={Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies},
  author={Erik M. Pilgrim and Carol D von Dohlen and James P. Pitts},
  journal={Zoologica Scripta},
The 24 000+ described species of Vespoidea include many well‐known stinging wasps, such as paper wasps and hornets (Vespidae), velvet ants (Mutillidae), spider wasps (Pompilidae) and ants (Formicidae). The compelling behaviours of vespoids have been instrumental in developing theories of stepwise evolutionary transitions, which necessarily depend on an understanding of phylogeny, yet, existing morphological phylogenies for Vespoidea conflict. We collected molecular data from four nuclear genes… 

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