Molecular pathways in renal cell carcinoma--rationale for targeted treatment.


The VHL tumor-suppressor gene is mutated or silenced in most clear cell renal carcinomas (RCCs). pVHL loss results in the stabilization of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and enhanced transactivation of HIF target genes. Downregulation of HIF is both necessary and sufficient for pVHL to suppress the growth of human… (More)