Molecular pathways in renal cell carcinoma: recent advances in genetics and molecular biology.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a largely incurable disease with a grave prognosis despite the availability of a multiplicity of systemic therapies targeted against vascular endothelial growth factor, its receptors, and the mammalian target of rapamycin. Although immune 'checkpoint inhibitors' appear to have activity in clear… (More)
DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000186


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