This review summarizes recent studies on endogenous antipyretic mechanisms. Fever is the result of a balance between pyrogenic and cryogenic cytokines and hormones. Although there is considerable evidence that fever evolved as a host defense response, it is important that the rise in body temperature not be too high. Many endogenous cryogens or antipyretics that limit the rise in body temperature have been identified during the last 25 years. These include alpha-MSH, arginine vasopressin, glucocorticoids, TNF (under certain circumstances), and IL-10. Most recently, evidence has accumulated that cytochrome P-450 (P-450), part of the alternative pathway for arachidonic acid metabolism, plays an important role in reduction of fever and inflammation. Supporting a role for P-450 in endogenous antipyresis and antiinflammation includes evidence that (1) inducers of P-450 reduce fever, (2) inhibitors of P-450 cause a larger fever, (3) and P-450 arachidonic acid metabolites reduce fever.