Molecular mechanisms of cannabinoid addiction

@article{Fratta2013MolecularMO,
  title={Molecular mechanisms of cannabinoid addiction},
  author={W. Fratta and L. Fattore},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
  year={2013},
  volume={23},
  pages={487-492}
}
Cannabis is the world's most widely used illicit substance, with an estimated number of 119-224 million users worldwide. In recent years we assisted to an increased effort aimed to individuate the brain circuits underlying cannabis addiction and dependence. Similarly to other drugs of abuse, repeated exposure to cannabinoids causes brain neuroadaptations that persist long after drug effects, contribute to the negative affective states during withdrawal, and ultimately facilitate relapse… Expand
Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain.
TLDR
The state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Expand
Cannabinoids: Drug or Medication?
TLDR
The historical use of cannabis as a natural cure in ancient civilizations is described and the current use of cannabinoids in medicine, which includes innovative strategies for treating various diseases such as multiple sclerosis or cancer‐induced pain is explored. Expand
Chapter 10 Cannabinoids : Drug or Medication ?
This chapter aims at exploring the use and misuse of cannabinoids as it has become a major societal issue. In the first section, we describe the historical use of cannabis as a natural cure inExpand
Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pain
TLDR
The scientific evidence to target the peripheral cannabinoid system as an alternative to cannabis use for medical purposes is discussed, and the available literature is reviewed to determine the pros and cons of potential strategies that can be used to this end. Expand
Genetic and Molecular Aspects of Addiction with Tetrahydrocannabinol
Abstract Cannabis sativa derivatives (marijuana, hashish) are currently the most frequently self-administered “soft narcotics” worldwide. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as other psychoactiveExpand
Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction
TLDR
The current state of knowledge about vulnerability factors, the variations in types of cannabis, and the relationship between these and cognition and addiction are reviewed. Expand
Cannabinoid abuse and addiction: Clinical and preclinical findings
TLDR
This review describes efforts to understand the mechanisms of cannabinoid abuse and its adverse effects, to identify molecular targets for pharmacotherapy, and to evaluate potential treatments in human volunteers and animal models of cannabinoid reward, withdrawal, and relapse. Expand
The Modulating Role of Sex and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Hormones in Cannabinoid Sensitivity
TLDR
The recent discovery that pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroid hormones, controls cannabinoid receptor activation corroborates the link between steroid hormones and the endocannabinoid system. Expand
Potential of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands as Treatment for Substance Use Disorders
TLDR
Recent progress in research regarding the endocannabinoid systems, cannabis reward versus aversion, and the underlying receptor mechanisms is reviewed, and cannabinoid-based medication development for the treatment of SUDs is reviewed. Expand
Gender Differences in Cannabis Addiction and Dependence
In humans as in animals, males and females are dissimilar in their genetic and hormonally driven behaviour; they process information differently, perceive experiences and emotions in different ways,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
Cannabinoid Addiction: Behavioral Models and Neural Correlates
TLDR
This work reviews animal models of cannabinoid addiction and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main target of natural cannabinoids, and its interaction with opioid and dopamine transmission in reward circuits. Expand
Considering gender in cannabinoid research: a step towards personalized treatment of marijuana addicts.
TLDR
Cravings for marijuana smoking and propensity to re-use cannabis after abstinence may also develop differently between the sexes and require distinct treatment approaches, thus highlighting the urgent need for gender-tailored prevention strategies and detoxification treatments. Expand
Pharmacological treatment of cannabis dependence.
TLDR
Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study and controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications. Expand
Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction?
  • E. Nestler
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nature Neuroscience
  • 2005
TLDR
A major goal for future research is to determine whether common underpinnings of addiction can be exploited for the development of more effective treatments for a wide range of addictive disorders. Expand
Preliminary evidence of cannabinoid effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in humans
TLDR
The effects of socially relevant doses of cannabinoids on BDNF suggest a possible mechanism underlying the consequences of exposure to cannabis, of particular importance for the developing brain and also in disorders believed to involve altered neurodevelopment such as schizophrenia. Expand
Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers
TLDR
Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke cannabis is shown, using positron emission tomography imaging, for the first direct demonstration of cortical cannabinoids CB1 receptor downregulation as a neuroadaptation that may promote cannabis dependence in human brain. Expand
The cannabis withdrawal syndrome
TLDR
A clinically important withdrawal syndrome associated with cannabis dependence has been established and additional research must determine how cannabis withdrawal affects cessation attempts and the best way to treat its symptoms. Expand
Protracted abstinence from distinct drugs of abuse shows regulation of a common gene network
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, regardless the drug, a specific set of transcriptional regulations develops in the abstinent brain, which possibly contributes to the negative affect characterizing protracted abstinence, a hallmark of drug abstinence and a unitary adaptive molecular mechanism in substance abuse disorders. Expand
Signaling pathways involved in the development of cannabinoid tolerance.
TLDR
Recent evidence suggests that several protein kinases participate in the development of cannabinoid tolerance, which implicate a role for protein kinase in cannabinoid signaling pathways. Expand
Proenkephalin Mediates the Enduring Effects of Adolescent Cannabis Exposure Associated with Adult Opiate Vulnerability
TLDR
It is shown that regulation of the Penk opioid neuropeptide gene in NAcsh directly regulates heroin SA behavior and indicates that epigenetic dysregulation of Penk underlies the long-term effects of THC. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...