Molecular markers for bladder cancer screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance: the WHO/ICUD consensus.

@article{SchmitzDrger2015MolecularMF,
  title={Molecular markers for bladder cancer screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance: the WHO/ICUD consensus.},
  author={Bernd Jurgen Schmitz-Dr{\"a}ger and Michael J. Droller and Vinata B. Lokeshwar and Yair Lotan and M'liss Ann Hudson and Bas Wilhelmus Gerardus van Rhijn and Michael J Marberger and Yves Fradet and George P. Hemstreet and P. U. Malmstrom and Osamu Ogawa and Pierre I. Karakiewicz and Shahrokh F Shariat},
  journal={Urologia internationalis},
  year={2015},
  volume={94 1},
  pages={1-24}
}
Due to the lack of disease-specific symptoms, diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer has remained a challenge to the urologic community. Cystoscopy, commonly accepted as a gold standard for the detection of bladder cancer, is invasive and relatively expensive, while urine cytology is of limited value specifically in low-grade disease. Over the last decades, numerous molecular assays for the diagnosis of urothelial cancer have been developed and investigated with regard to their clinical use… CONTINUE READING