Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders

Abstract

BACKGROUND Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphisms in platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) that can stimulate production of alloantibodies once exposed to foreign platelets (PLTs) with different HPAs. These antibodies can cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and PLT transfusion refractoriness. Most HPAs are localized on the main PLT receptors: 1) integrin αIIbβ3, known as the fibrinogen receptor; 2) the GPIb-IX-V complex that functions as the receptor for von Willebrand factor; and 3) integrin α2β1, which functions as the collagen receptor. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed the structural location and the evolutionary conservation of the residues associated with the HPAs to characterize the features that induce immunologic responses but do not cause inherited diseases. RESULTS We found that all HPAs reside in positions located on the protein surface, apart from the ligand-binding site, and are evolutionary variable. CONCLUSION Disease-causing mutations often reside in highly conserved and buried positions. In contrast, the HPAs affect residues on the protein surface that were not conserved throughout evolution; this explains their naive effect on the protein function. Nonetheless, the HPAs involve substitutions of solvent-exposed positions that lead to altered interfaces on the surface of the protein and might present epitopes foreign to the immune system.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02862.x

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@inproceedings{Landau2011MolecularII, title={Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders}, author={Meytal Landau and Nurit Rosenberg}, booktitle={Transfusion}, year={2011} }