Molecular characterization of Polish patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: novel and recurrentLDLR mutations
Mutations in the LDL receptor are responsible for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). At present, more than 600 mutations of the LDL receptor gene are known to underlie FH. However, the array of mutations varies considerably in different populations. Therefore, the delineation of essentially all LDL receptor gene mutations in a population represents a prerequisite for the implementation of nation-wide genetic testing for FH. In this study, the frequency and geographical distribution of 13 known mutations were evaluated in a cohort of 1223 FH patients. We identified 358 mutation carriers, representing 29% of the FH cohort. Four mutations (N543H-2393de19, 1359--1G-->A, 313 + 1 G-->A and W23X) occurred with a relatively high frequency, accounting for 22.4% of the entire study cohort. Two of these common FH mutations (N543H-2393de19 and 1359 - 1G-->A) showed a preferential geographic distribution. Second, to further expand the array of LDL receptor gene mutations, we conducted mutation analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in 141 children with definite FH. A mutation was identified in 111 patients, involving 16 new single base substitutions and four small deletions and insertions, which brings the number of different FH-causing mutations in our country up to 61. Our data indicate that an estimate of the prevalence of specific mutations, as well as the compilation of a database of all FH-causing mutations in a given country, can facilitate selection of the most appropriate molecular diagnostic approach.