Molecular forms in human serum of enzymes synthesizing DNA precursors and DNA

  title={Molecular forms in human serum of enzymes synthesizing DNA precursors and DNA},
  author={Anders R. Karlstr{\"o}m and Magnus Neum{\"u}ller and J. Simon Gronowitz and Clas F. R. K{\"a}llander},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry},
Both thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (DNAp) are present in measurable amounts in human serum. Even though the use of TK as a clinical marker is rapidly increasing there has been no attempt to characterize the serum TK in a wider extent, i.e.; with respect to Mw or other biochemical parameters. Therefore sera with high TK or DNAp activities derived from patients with cytomegalo-virus (CMV) infection, B12-deficiency and leukaemia were fractionated by gel exclusion chromatography. The TK… 

Quaternary structures of recombinant, cellular, and serum forms of Thymidine Kinase 1 from dogs and humans

The results suggest that the serum TK1 protein differs from cellular or recombinant forms, is more active in high molecular weight complexes, and is sensitive to reducing agents.

Diagnostic implications of the molecular forms and levels of serum thymidine kinase 1 in different canine malignancies

Overall, the results demonstrate that TK1 protein assays provide valuable diagnostic information in a variety of canine malignancies.

Molecular properties of serum thymidine kinase 1 and use of the canine enzyme in disease monitoring

Investigating the molecular characteristics of canine thymidine kinase 1 and utilizing several anti-TK1 antibodies to a better understanding its role in disease prognostics, risk assessment, and monitoring of cancer development revealed that serum TK1 activity was elevated in 41% of bitches with pyometra, and thus TK 1 determinations may be clinically valuable also in some non-neoplastic diseases.

Sensitive nonradiometric method for determining thymidine kinase 1 activity.

The TK1 enzyme-labeled immunoassay uses a stable substrate, is precise, appears to be accurate, and is resistant to interferences and may provide a practical tool in the management of hematologic malignancies.

Properties of cellular and serum forms of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) in dogs with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and canine mammary tumors (CMTs): implications for TK1 as a proliferation biomarker

Serum TK1 protein and activity levels were significantly higher in CMT than in healthy dogs, and preliminary data supports that sTK1protein assay is clinically useful, and further studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic or prognostic role of serum TK 1 protein in C MTs.

Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker

There are differences in the specific activities and the subunit compositions of STK1 in hematological malignancies compared with breast and prostate cancer, and this fact has several important implications for the use ofSTK1 as a tumor biomarker.

Novel monoclonal antibodies against thymidine kinase 1 and their potential use for the immunotargeting of lung, breast and colon cancer cells

The targeting of TK1 in malignant cells using monoclonal antibodies may be a feasible approach for the elimination of high Tk1 expressing tumor cells.

Comparative aspects of the proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 in human and canine tumour diseases.

The present review will focus on the recent results concerning TK1's S phase-correlated expression, increased serum levels of Tk1 in patients with malignancies and the relevance for veterinary and comparative oncology.



Detection and characteristics of DNA polymerase activity in serum from patients with malignant, viral, or B12-deficiency disease.

Considering that DNA polymerase activity can be quantitated directly in crude sera, and that such analyses seems to give biological and clinical information, the development of an assay with improved sensitivity for extensive studies is justified.

Application of an in vitro assay for serum thymidine kinase: Results on viral disease and malignancies in humans

The TK activity in sera from patients with both mononucleosis and tumor disease was characterized by electrophoresis and by its ability to utilize cytidine triphosphate as the phosphate donor, and showed that the serum TK has the same properties as the human cytosolar TK1, except in connection with varicella.

Human cytosolic thymidine kinase. Purification and physical characterization of the enzyme from HeLa cells.

Thymidine kinase isoenzymes in human acute monocytic leukemia

Comparison of the molecular weights and the kinetic properties of TK 3 and TK 4 with the corresponding data previously obtained for TK 1 andTK 2 from normal human lymphocytes indicate the existence of four thymidine kinase isoenzymes in human leucocytes.

Accessory proteins for DNA polymerase alpha activity with single-strand DNA templates.

Three forms of DNA polymerase alpha were partially purified from the combined nuclear extract and postmicrosomal supernatant solution of synchronized HeLa cells and resolved the polymerasealpha activity and two protein factors that are required for its catalytic activity with a DNA template-primer that contains extended single-strand regions.

Differences in the kinetic properties of thymidine kinase isoenzymes in unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes

The results from inhibition studies showed, that dTTP was a cooperative inhibitor of TK 1 but a non-cooperative inhibitor ofTK 2 and TK 2N.

Human mitochondrial thymidine kinase is coded for by a gene on chromosome 16 of the nucleus

The expression of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase was investigated by polyacrylamide electrophoresis in 19 independent human—mouse somatic cell hybrids and the appearance of one heteropolymer band after electrophoretic separation of human and murine mt TK supports the notion that both enzymes have dimeric structures.