Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study

  title={Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study},
  author={Helen F. Stanley and Miranda Kadwell and Jane C. Wheeler},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences},
  pages={1 - 6}
We report the first molecular evolutionary analysis of the family Camelidae by analysing the full DNA sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Estimates for the time of divergence of the Old World (Camelini) and New World (Lamini) tribes obtained from sequence data are in agreement with those derived from the fossil record. The DNA sequence data were also used to test current hypotheses concerning the ancestors of the domesticated llama and alpaca. The results show that hybridization… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Mitogenome Sequencing in the Genus Camelus Reveals Evidence for Purifying Selection and Long-term Divergence between Wild and Domestic Bactrian Camels

Lineage-specific analysis of mitochondrial protein evolution revealed a significant effect of purifying selection in the concatenated protein-coding genes in domestic Bactrian camels, which has major implications for the conservation and management of the critically endangered wild species, Camelus ferus.

A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus): an evolutionary history of camelidae

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus), the only wild survivor of the Old World camel, is determined and suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record.

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

Variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca to find fine and consistent differences in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicunas and alpacas.

Evolutionary genetics of the suiformes as reconstructed using mtDNA sequencing

We have amplified and sequnced the entire mitochondrial DNA cytochromeb gene from four species of Suidae: babirusa, warthog, bearded pig, and some specimens belonging to different subspecies and

Ancient DNA reveals the lost domestication history of South American camelids in Northern Chile and across the Andes

The study of South American camelids and their domestication is a highly debated topic in zooarchaeology. Identifying the domestic species (alpaca and llama) in archaeological sites based solely on

Mining the mammalian genome for artiodactyl systematics.

The nuclear DNA data suggest that the Antilocaprinae account for a unique evolutionary lineage, the Cervidae and Bovidae are sister taxa, and the Giraffidae are more primitive.

DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication

By comparing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of modern breeds with their potential wild and domestic ancestors, new insights are gained into the timing and location of domestication events that produced the farm animals of today.

The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics

  • P. Burger
  • Medicine, Biology
    Tropical Animal Health and Production
  • 2016
Specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels’ ability to adapt to desert environments, which will be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids.



Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins.

The mitochondrial DNA sequence data from COII and ND4-5 regions therefore do not support this multiregional hypothesis for the emergence of modern humans and are compatible with a 1-Myr-old human mitochondrial ancestor.

Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.

The polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates, and the unexpectedly wide taxonomic utility of these primers offers opportunities for phylogenetic and population research.

Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome

The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented and shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.

Mitochondrial DNA analysis implying extensive hybridization of the endangered red wolf Canis rufus

Phylogenetic analysis indicates that red wolves have either a grey wolf or coyote mtDNA genotype, demonstrating hybridization among these species, and does not argue against the continued protection of the red wolf.

Uniformity of karyotypes in the Camelidae

The Old World camels of the genus Camelus have diverged from the New World camels of the genera Lama and Vicugna over a period of more than a m

Ancient DNA: extraction, characterization, molecular cloning, and enzymatic amplification.

  • S. Pääbo
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1989
The polymerase chain reaction can be used to amplify and study short mitochondrial DNA sequences that are of anthropological and evolutionary significance and opens up the prospect of performing diachronical studies of molecular evolutionary genetics.

Nucleotide sequence of satellite I and II DNA from alpaca (Lama pacos) genome.

Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a total alpaca (Lama pacos) DNA, digested with several restriction enzymes, revealed the presence of two tandemly organized repetitive DNA sequences,

Molecular Changes at Speciation

This review examines the consequences of speciation for patterns of molecular genetic variation within and among populations and considers the following questions.

Blood typing South American camelids.

Blood typing tests of New World camelids were shown to be feasible for studies of taxonomic relationships and transferrin variation and lectin polymorphism also were observed.

Giant camels from the Cenozoic of North America

Harrison, Jessica A. Giant Camels from the Cenozoic of North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 57, 29 pages, 17 figures, 1985.—Seven genera of giant camels occurred in North