Molecular evolution: Evidence for the monophyletic origin of multicellular animals

  title={Molecular evolution: Evidence for the monophyletic origin of multicellular animals},
  author={Werner E. G. M{\"u}ller and Isabel M. Müller and Baruch Rinkevich and V. Gamulin},
The mysterious spawning of the European eel in the Sargasso Sea remains a matter of conjecture and debate and will be resolved only by direct observation of spawning pairs. We thank Dr. E Tesch, Hamburg, for many stimulating discussions and assistance during the past years. Prof. Schnack, Kiel, enabled one of us (H. E) to join the Sargasso Expedition. We are particularly grateful to Dr. Hilge, AMensburg, who performed the hormon treatment of the eels, and to Dr. B. Strelow, Rostock, who… 

The biology of glass sponges.

Molecular phylogeny of metazoa (animals): Monophyletic origin

A monophyletic origin for all animals is suggested after having analyzed genes typical for multicellularity (adhesion molecules/receptors and a nuclear receptor) and presenting evidence that Porifera should be placed in the kingdom Animalia.

Giant siliceous spicules from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

The largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni

Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system and have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness in bio-silica structures.

Micrometer-sized network structure of novel DNA-lipid conjugates induced by heat stimulation.

A novel lipid-bearing DNA that forms hairpin modules, including a single RNA monomer, can be used to create micrometer-sized structures from nanometer-sized building blocks during breakage at the RNA site, and this is the first report of heat-induced molecular self-assembly of molecules that carry biological information.



HOM/HOX homeobox genes are present in hydra (Chlorohydra viridissima) and are differentially expressed during regeneration.

Differential expression of homeobox genes at various stages of regeneration suggests that they play specific roles in regenerative processes.


  • P. Morris
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1993
It is proposed that the complex (collagen, proteoglycan, adhesive glycoprotein, and integrin) system that mediates cell motility and transitions between epithelial and motile cell types is central to multicellularity in animals.

Molecular cloning of a tyrosine kinase gene from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium: a new member belonging to the receptor tyrosine kinase class II family.

The sponge TK, when compared with mammalian class II RTKs, shows maximum 31% homology in the TK domain indicating that this the oldest member of class IIRTK started to diverge from the common ancestral protein kinase approximately 650 million years ago.

The family of metazoan metal-independent beta-galactoside-binding lectins: structure, function and molecular evolution.

It appears that beta-galactoside-binding lectins and some non-lectin proteins form a superfamily whose members are widely distributed from vertebrates to invertebrates and a consideration of molecular evolution suggests that lectins belonging to this family probably existed in the Precambrian era.

S-type lectins occur also in invertebrates: high conservation of the carbohydrate recognition domain in the lectin genes from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium.

Clustering of lectin sequences of various species following their pairwise comparison establishes a dendrogram, which reveals that the sponge lectin could be considered as the ancestor for vertebrate S-type lectins.

The homeobox in perspective.

  • W. Gehring
  • Chemistry
    Trends in biochemical sciences
  • 1992

Two Component System for Surface Guided Reassociation of Animal Cells

The isolation of a second macromolecular component, other than AF, which is necessary for reaggregation, and which seems to remain on the surface of the cell after removal of the aggregation factor, and to interact with intercellular AF is described.