Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare but nearly universally fatal tumor. Epidemiologic data suggest that many anaplastic thyroid carcinomas arise from transformation of preexisting or coexisting well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. At the molecular level, the mutations responsible for the anaplastic transformation are incompletely understood, although the mutational events are thought to involve tumor suppressor genes. To examine transformation from a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic carcinoma, we studied coexisting well-differentiated (Hürthle cell and papillary carcinoma) and anaplastic tumors with a molecular genotyping panel of tumor suppressor genes associated with thyroid neoplasia. The patterns of allelic loss in our results showed that the majority of cases have a core of conserved mutations in the two morphologically distinct areas and substantial increases in mutation rates in the anaplastic components.