Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates

  title={Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates},
  author={Mitsuru Shimamura and Hiroshi Yasue and Kazuhiko Ohshima and Hideaki Abe and Hidehiro Kato and Toshiya Kishiro and Mutsuo Goto and Isao Munechika and Norihiro Okada},
The origin of whales and their transition from terrestrial life to a fully aquatic existence has been studied in depth. Palaeontological,, morphological and molecular studies suggest that the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is more closely related to the order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including cows, camels and pigs) than to other ungulate orders. The traditional view that the order Artiodactyla is monophyletic has been challenged by molecular analyses of variations in… 

Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales.

It is concluded that cetaceans evolved from an immediate artiodactyl, not mesonychian, ancestor, thereby shedding light on the origin of whales.

Retroposon analysis of major cetacean lineages: The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins

The combination of SINE and flanking sequence analysis suggests a topology and set of divergence times for odontocete relationships, offering alternative explanations for several long-standing problems in cetacean evolution.

The position of Cetacea within mammalia: phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa.

Knowledge of the phylogenetic position of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) within Mammalia is of central importance to evolutionary biologists studying the transformations of

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Sperm Whale and a New Molecular Reference for Estimating Eutherian Divergence Dates

The complete mitochondrial genome of an odontocete, the sperm whale, is sequenced and included in phylogenetic analyses together with the previously sequenced complete mtDNAs of two mysticetes and a number of other mammals, making both Artiodactyla and Suiformes (pigs, peccaries, and hippopotamuses) paraphyletic.

Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions.

The interordinal mammalian relationships presented here provide a cornerstone for future studies in the reconstruction of mammalian classifications, including extinct species, on evolution of large genomic sequences and structure, and in developmental analysis of morphological diversification.

A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even‐toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla)

The present species‐level tree of the Cetartiodactyla provides the first opportunity to examine comparative hypotheses across entirely aquatic and terrestrial species within a single mammalian order.

New Morphological Evidence for the Phylogeny of Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Mesonychidae

Abstract Parsimony-based analyses of a data set including 68 taxa coded for 186 morphological characters corroborate monophyly of Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), Suiformes (hippos, pigs,

Impact of increased character sampling on the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia): combined analysis including fossils

The phylogenetic position of Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is an important exemplar problem for combined data parsimony analyses because the clade is ancient and includes many well‐known

Evolution of CHR-2 SINEs in cetartiodactyl genomes: possible evidence for the monophyletic origin of toothed whales

This work analyzed systematically more than a hundred members of the CHR-2 SINEs, which were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and cow, together with the additional data available in the DNA databases, and showed that they are divided into at least five distinct subfamilies that share diagnostic nucleotides and/or deletions.



Revised phylogeny of whales suggested by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences

The determination of DNA sequences from two mitochondrial ribosomal gene segments for 16 species of cetaceans, a perissodactyl and a sloth, are reported and the first phylogeny for whales and dolphins based on explicit cladistic methods is constructed, confirming that cetACEans are closely related to artiodactyls and that all families and superfamilies of cetus are monophyletic.

Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla.

It is estimated that the whale lineage has branched off a protoruminant lineage < 50 Mya, and the cetacean transition to aquatic life is inferred to be a relatively recent evolutionary event.

The Evolutionary History of Whales and Dolphins

Cetaceans-the whales, dolphins, and porpoises-are the taxonomically most diverse clade of aquatic mammals, with a fossil record going back at least to Middle Eocene time (52 Ma-millions of years

Phylogenetic position of cetaceans relative to artiodactyls: reanalysis of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

Although the Ruminantia/Suiformes grouping is indeed least likely from Graur and Higgins' data set of mitochondrial DNA, this traditional tree cannot be rejected with statistical significance under the new analysis, and more data are needed to settle the issue.

Details of retropositional genome dynamics that provide a rationale for a generic division: the distinct branching of all the pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus) from the Atlantic salmon and trout (Salmo).

Evidence is provided for extensive genomic rearrangements that involved retropositions and deletions in a common ancestor of all the Pacific salmon and trout.

Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls.

Phylogenetic analyses of the casein data suggest that hippopotamid artiodactyls are more closely related to cetaceans than to other artiodactoryls (even-toed hoofed mammals), and an analysis of the nuclear casein sequences combined with published mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences also supports the Cetacea/Hippopotamidae sister group.

Determination of the phylogenetic relationships among Pacific salmonids by using short interspersed elements (SINEs) as temporal landmarks of evolution.

An extensive phylogenetic tree constructed from an analysis of differential insertion of SINEs is presented, and it is proposed that SINE insertion analysis is one of the best available methods for clarifying the order of divergence of closely related species.

Instability of quartet analyses of molecular sequence data by the maximum likelihood method: the Cetacea/Artiodactyla relationships.

It was shown that one can find a quartet of species which provides a high bootstrap proportion for each of the three possible trees and that the quartet analyses with only four species can be misleading even with the maximum likelihood.

Continental breakup and the ordinal diversification of birds and mammals

THE classical hypothesis for the diversification of birds and mammals proposes that most of the orders diverged rapidly in adaptive radiations after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) extinction event 65

Origin of underwater hearing in whales

The incus and mandible of Pakicetus indicate that the path of soundwaves to its ear resembled that of land mammals, and corroborate the hypothesis that artiodactyls are the closest extant relatives of cetaceans.