Molecular development of fibular reduction in birds and its evolution from dinosaurs

  title={Molecular development of fibular reduction in birds and its evolution from dinosaurs},
  author={Jo{\~a}o Francisco Botelho and Daniel Smith‐Paredes and Sergio Soto‐Acu{\~n}a and Jingmai K O'Connor and Ver{\'o}nica Palma and A. O. Vargas},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
Birds have a distally reduced, splinter-like fibula that is shorter than the tibia. In embryonic development, both skeletal elements start out with similar lengths. We examined molecular markers of cartilage differentiation in chicken embryos. We found that the distal end of the fibula expresses Indian hedgehog (IHH), undergoing terminal cartilage differentiation, and almost no Parathyroid-related protein (PTHrP), which is required to develop a proliferative growth plate (epiphysis). Reduction… CONTINUE READING
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