ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Characterization of a Receptor Subtype-Selective Lysophosphatidic Acid Mimetic
Lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2-lyso-snglycero-3-phosphate, LPA) is a multifunctional lipid mediator found in a variety of organisms that span the phylogenetic tree from humans to plants. Although its physiological function is not clearly understood, LPA is a potent regulator of mammalian cell proliferation; it is one of the major mitogens found in blood serum. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, LPA elicits oscillatory Cl- currents. This current, like other effects of LPA, is consistent with a plasma membrane receptor-mediated activation of G protein-linked signal transduction pathways. Herein we report the identification of a complementary DNA from Xenopus that encodes a functional high-affinity LPA receptor. The predicted structure of this protein of 372 amino acids contains features common to members of the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily with a predicted extracellular amino and intracellular carboxyl terminus. An antisense oligonucleotide derived from the first 5-11 predicted amino acids, selectively inhibited the expression of the endogenous high-affinity LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes, whereas the same oligonucleotide did not affect the low-affinity LPA receptor. Expression of the full-length cRNA in oocytes led to an increase in maximal Cl- current due to increased expression of the high-affinity LPA receptor, but activation of the low-affinity receptor was, again, unaffected. Oocytes expressing cRNA prepared from this clone showed no response to other lipid mediators including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sphingosine 1-phosphate, sphingosylphosphorylcholine, and platelet-activating factor, suggesting that the receptor is highly selective for LPA.