Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta (δ) virus RNA

  title={Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta ($\delta$) virus RNA},
  author={Shinji Makino and Ming-Fu Chang and C K Shieh and Toshio Kamahora and David M. Vannier and Sugantha Govindarajan and Michael M C Lai},
Human hepatitis delta (δ) virus (HDV) is a form of defective virus, which infects humans only in the presence of a co-infecting hepatitis B virus (HBV), HDV superinfection in a chronic HBV carrier often results in severe chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, whereas acute HDV and HBV co-infection is frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis1–3. HDV consists of a 36-nm particle; which contains an envelope with HBV surface antigen, and a nucleocapsid containing the hepatitis δ-antigen (HDAg) and… 

Hepatitis delta virus cDNA sequence from an acutely HBV‐infected chimpanzee: Sequence conservation in experimental animals

The complete cDNA sequence of the HDV RNA (5th passage) showed an extreme conservation with the previously published animal‐derived HDV cDNA sequences irrespective of passage number and animal species, and was highly conserved.

Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) and Delta-Like Agents: Insights Into Their Origin

The widespread distribution of delta-like agents across different taxa with considerable phylogenetic distances may be instrumental in comprehending their evolutionary history by elucidating the transition from transcriptome to cellular circular RNAs to infectious subviral agents.

Polymerase Chain Reaction for Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA Identification and Characterization

The whole genome of HDV was analyzed from the liver of an infected woodchuk, then selected parts of the HDV genome with two unrelated HDV strains isolated from humans to allow a better appraisal in the implications ofHDV genome variability.

Hepatitis Delta Virus: Virology and Replication

HDV infection is estimated to affect 5–10 % of HBV-infected individuals worldwide, and to cause the most severe form of viral hepatitis and the most difficult to treat.

Initiation of replication of the human hepatitis delta virus genome from cloned DNA: role of delta antigen

The delta antigen can act in trans and is essential for replication of the HDV genome, the only known virus-coded protein.

A Canadian isolate of hepatitis D (delta) virus.

Surprisingly, seven mutations were found in the 48-nucleotide region located between the two highly conserved self-catalytic motifs of HDV, prompting the present authors to define it as a hypervariable region.

Recombinant hepatitis delta antigen from E. coli promotes hepatitis delta virus RNA replication only from the genomic strand but not the antigenomic strand.

Surprisingly, the purified S-HDAg could not initiate replication from the antigenomic-sense HDV RNA, even though the latter led to RNA replication when transfected with an mRNA encoding the S- HDAg, suggesting that initiation ofHDV RNA synthesis fromThe antigenomic RNA may require a form of HDAg that is modified in mammalian cells.

Hepatitis D virus

The hepatitis D virus (HDV) relies on the helper hepatitis B virus (HBV) for the provision of its envelope, which consists of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the only protein encoded by HDV‐RNA and its long and short forms have a regulatory role in the replication and morphogenesis of the virus.

Hepatitis D virus infection, replication and cross-talk with the hepatitis B virus.

The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HBsAgs and the molecular pathway involved in their promotion of LDAg nuclear export are reviewed and regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs).



The hepatitis delta (δ) virus possesses a circular RNA

Evidence based on electron microscopy and electrophoretic behaviour that HDV contains a single stranded circular RNA molecule is presented, which is the first animal virus identified with a circular RNA genome.

Structure and replication of the genome of hepatitis delta virus.

The RNA genome of serum-derived delta virus is single-stranded and circular, and the structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus are in many ways similar to those of the previously described plant viroids, virusoids, and satellite RNAs.

delta Agent: association of delta antigen with hepatitis B surface antigen and RNA in serum of delta-infected chimpanzees.

A small RNA was temporally associated with delta antigen in the serum of infected chimpanzees and copurified with the delta-antigen-associated particles, smaller than the genomes of known RNA viruses but larger than the viroids of higher plants.

Cloned fragment of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome: sequence and diagnostic application.

This cloned cDNA fragment has been used as a sensitive radioactive probe for the detection of HDV RNA in the serum of patients with either acute or chronic HDV infections.

Mouse hepatitis virus A59: mRNA structure and genetic localization of the sequence divergence from hepatotropic strain MHV-3

The composition and structure of the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-specific RNA in actinomycin D-treated, infected L-2 cells were studied and suggested that the virus-specific RNAs are mRNA's and have a stairlike structure similar to that of infectious bronchitis virus, an avian coronavirus.

Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (δ) viral genome

Biochemical and electron microscopic data indicate that the human hepatitis δ viral agent contains a covalently closed circular and single-stranded RNA genome that has certain similarities with

Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (δ) viral genome

It is shown that a GUANOSINE residue was omitted from the nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis 8 viral (HDV) genomic RNA between residues 1,113 and 1,114 (Figs 4 and 5).

Epidemiology and clinical impact of hepatitis D virus (delta) infection

The findings indicate that health‐care workers and institutionalized mentally retarded persons have been spared from infection with this agent but suggest that homosexual males may not continue to be spared.