5-Lipoxygenase (EC 126.96.36.199), a Ca2+-and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B4. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the 32P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite cDNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A4 hydrolase or Ca2+ -binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approximately equal to 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.