Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

  title={Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink},
  author={Bernhard F. Benkel and Kirsti Rouvinen-Watt and Hossain Farid and Razvan Anistoroaei},
  journal={Mammalian Genome},
A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the “marbled” variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested the hypothesis that the color pattern in question—light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)—is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results… 

Baboon bearing resemblance in pigmentation pattern to Siamese cat carries a missense mutation in the tyrosinase gene.

P.(Ala365Thr) due to a mutation in the TYR gene is a likely candidate for the cause of the albino phenotype in this baboon.

Shadow coat colour in American mink associated with a missense mutation in the KIT gene.

The classical genetic analysis describes more 35 mutations that are involved in the formation of the American mink (Neovison vison) fur colour phenotype. To date, only eight of these mutations have

Mocha tyrosinase variant: a new flavour of cat coat coloration

Findings of this study suggest that TYR is associated with the mocha coloration in cats and a new color variant adds to the allelic series for TYR and is recessive to full color (C); however, interactions with the c b and c s alleles are unclear due to the temperature‐sensitivity of the alleles.

Identification of mutant gene for Black crystal coat and non-allelic gene interactions in Neogale vison

Sable (Martes zibellina) and American mink (Neogale vison) are valuable species characterized by a variety of coat colour produced on fur farms. Black crystal fur phenotype is Mendelian codominant

TYR Gene in Llamas: Polymorphisms and Expression Study in Different Color Phenotypes

Exposure to qPCR showed that expression levels of TYR in white llamas were significantly lower than those in diluted and non-diluted phenotypes, indicating that TYR expression levels play a role in llama pigmentation.

Genome analysis of American minks reveals link of mutations in Ras-related protein-38 gene to Moyle brown coat phenotype

Over 35 fur colours have been described in American mink (Neovison vison), only six of which have been previously linked to specific genes. Moyle fur colour belongs to a wide group of brownish

A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

It is suggested that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown.

Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison).

A lack of association between three different 'roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink is described and six different genes that were considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes are described.

Genome analysis identifies the mutant genes for common industrial Silverblue and Hedlund white coat colours in American mink

The whole genome sequencing for two American mink breeds with Silverblue and Hedlund white coats is performed and mutations in splice donor sites of genes coding melanophilin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor that regulate melanosome transport and neural-crest-derived melanocyte development are identified.

Colours of domestication

The underlying causes that have resulted in the observed increase of colour variation in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors are focused on, and the current state of knowledge with regard to the molecular mechanisms of colouration is examined, with a special emphasis on when and where the different coat‐colour‐associated genes act.



Albinism in the American mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation.

Analysis of genomic TYR sequences from wild-type and albino mink samples identified a nonsense mutation in exon 1, which converts a TGT codon encoding cysteine to a TGA stop codon and indicates that the nonsense mutation is responsible for theAlbino phenotype in the American mink.

Tyrosinase mutations associated with Siamese and Burmese patterns in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

All cats that had 'pointed' or the Burmese coat colour phenotype were homozygous for the corresponding mutations, respectively, suggesting that these phenotypes are a result of the identified mutations or unidentified mutations that are in linkage disequilibrium.

Tyrosinase gene variants in different rabbit strains

Using comparative sequence analysis, specific nucleotide exchanges in the coding region of the tyrosinase gene were suggested to cause the phenotypes ‘chinchilla’, ‘california’ and ‘albino’ as well as a major part of the higher rate of non-homology in the mouse amino acid sequence are caused by differences in the C-terminal end of the protein.

Molecular basis of mouse Himalayan mutation.

Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

It is demonstrated that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA fromAlbino and pigmented ferrets.

A second acromelanistic allelomorph at the albino locus of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

A new autosomal recessive coat color mutant in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is described: chinchilla medium (symbol c(chm), and it is shown that the new mutant is not allelic with gray.

Tyrosinase and tyrosinase related protein 1 alleles specify domestic cat coat color phenotypes of the albino and brown loci.

The results provide very strong evidence that the specific nucleotide variants of feline TYR (chromosome D1) are causative of the siamese and burmese alleles of the albino locus, as well as nucleotideVariant 1 of TYRP1 (chromOSome D4) as specifying the chocolate (b) and cinnamon (b(l) allele of the B locus.

A tyrosinase gene missense mutation in temperature-sensitive type I oculocutaneous albinism. A human homologue to the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse.

A novel type I OCA phenotype in which hypopigmentation is related to local body temperature is associated with a missense substitution in tyrosinase, codon 422 CGG (Arg)----CAG (Gln).

The effect of temperature on tyrosinase activity in Himalayan mouse skin.

Results show that Himalayan tyrosinase is maximally active at temperatures well below normal body temperature, and suggest the presence of a tyosinase inhibitor in Himalayan mouse skin, and it is proposed that at thenormal body temperature of 37 degree C, tyros inase from Himalayan skin is strongly bound to an inhibitor.

A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations.

The model explains the mechanistic necessity for conservation of not only active site histidines but also adjacent amino acids in tyrosinase.