The aim of this research paper was to characterize coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci from raw milk, Minas cheese, and production lines of Minas cheese processing. One hundred isolates from 3 different cheese producers were characterized using molecular approaches, such as PCR, molecular typing, and DNA sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus (88% of the isolates) was the most abundant followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus warneri. Among the 22 enterotoxin genes tested, the most frequent was seh (62% of the isolates), followed by selx and ser. Hemolysin genes were widely distributed across isolates, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock syndrome toxin genes were also identified. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec III, IVa, IVd, and others nontypeable. In the phenotypic antibiotic resistance, multiresistant isolates were detected and resistance to penicillin was the most observed. Using spa typing, we identified several types and described a new one, t14969, isolated from cheese. These findings suggest that antibiotic resistance and potentially virulent strains from different sources can be found in the Brazilian dairy processing environment. Further research should be conducted with collaboration from regulatory agencies to develop programs of prevention of virulent and resistant strain dissemination in dairy products and the processing environment.