Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways

  title={Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways},
  author={Claudia Schmidt-Dannert and Daisuke Umeno and Frances H. Arnold},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
The burgeoning demand for complex, biologically active molecules for medicine, materials science, consumer products, and agrochemicals is driving efforts to engineer new biosynthetic pathways into microorganisms and plants. We have applied principles of breeding, including mixing genes and modifying catalytic functions by in vitro evolution, to create new metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of natural products in Escherichia coli. We expressed shuffled phytoene desaturases in the context of a… 
Directed evolution of biosynthetic pathways to carotenoids with unnatural carbon backbones.
Light is shed on the molecular mechanisms used by evolution to access new chemical diversity and the selective pressures that have shaped natural product biosynthesis.
Directed Evolution of Biosynthetic Pathways to Carotenoids with Unnatural Carbon Backbones
To expand the number of carotenoid backbones beyond the C30 and C40 carbon scaffolds that give rise to the ~700 known naturalCarotenoids, a carOTenoid synthase, the enzyme responsible for carotanoid backbone synthesis, is subjected to directed evolution.
Diversifying Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathways by Directed Evolution
This review details the strategies and specific methods that have been employed to generate new carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in the laboratory and the potential application of laboratory evolution to other biosynthesis pathways is discussed.
Current and Emerging Approaches for Natural Product Biosynthesis in Microbial Cells
Some of the recent developments in natural product biosynthesis are described, and some of the emerging approaches to harness the chemical diversity that lies hidden in nature are described.
A highly selective biosynthetic pathway to non-natural C50 carotenoids assembled from moderately selective enzymes
This work describes the assembly of a six-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli for the synthesis of C50-astaxanthin, a non-natural purple carotenoid, and shows that by judicious matching of engineered size-selectivity variants of the first two enzymes in the pathway, branching and the production of non-target compounds can be suppressed.
Gene fusions for the directed modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Mucor circinelloides.
This chapter describes part of the efforts to construct active gene fusions with two fungal genes essential for the modification of the pathway in M. circinelloides which could advance in the diversification of carotenoid production by this fungus.
Construction of a Nonnatural C60 Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway.
This work conducted a series of experiments to engineer C60 carotenoid pathways by stepwise introduction of cavity-expanding mutations together with stabilizing mutations progressively shifted the product size specificity of CrtM toward efficient synthases for C60carotenoids.
Expression Vectors and Gene Fusions for the Directed Modification of the Carotenoid Biosynthesis Pathway in Mucor circinelloides.
This chapter delineates part of the efforts to construct genetically modified strains that could advance in the improvement of carotenoid accumulation by M. circinelloides f.


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A review of the most recent developments in carotenoid biosynthesis from a molecular genetic standpoint summarizes the most recently developments in the genetics and molecular biology of carOTenoid pigment biosynthesis.
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Part of the E. herbicola crt cluster has been excised and expressed in various crt strains of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which has produced light-harvesting complexes with a novel carotenoid composition, in which the foreignCarotenoids such as beta-carotene function successfully in light harvesting.
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Researchers at the University of Minnesota have revealed that a similar modular PKS is responsible for ketolide biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezulae.
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Three different phytoene desaturase genes, from Rhodobacter capsulatus, Erwinia uredovora, and Synechococcus PCC 7942, have been functionally complemented with a gene construct from E. uredovora
Functional analysis of the beta and epsilon lycopene cyclase enzymes of Arabidopsis reveals a mechanism for control of cyclic carotenoid formation.
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The chemical structures of α- and β-carotene were elucidated about 60 years ago and in the middle of this century, 14C-labelling experiments revealed the origin of the carbon atoms of the C40 skeleton, which led to the establishment of the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids by 1970.