At present, the treatment options for Alzheimer’s disease are largely symptomatic giving rise to temporary remissions in cognitive decline or the amelioration of troublesome behavioural and psychological symptoms. However, as more is becoming known about the molecular biology of Alzheimer’s disease, there is a clear movement to treatments directed towards disease modification. Disease modification is now a realistic option and its importance is highlighted by the fact that a delay in the progression of the disease by just five years would halve the disease prevalence. Ultimately, however, drug therapy based on the molecular biology of Alzheimer’s disease will be preventive. These treatment strategies are still in their infancy, but our understanding of the processes requiring therapeutic manipulation is improving at a dramatic rate.