Diet Composition and Variability of Wild Octopus vulgaris and Alloteuthis media (Cephalopoda) Paralarvae: a Metagenomic Approach
A molecular approach was adopted to investigate the natural diets of palinurid and scyllarid lobster phyllosoma larvae. The central domain of the 18S rDNA gene was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genomic DNA extracted from the larval hepatopancreas. The resulting 18S rDNA clones were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and then FASTA homology search and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the nucleotide sequences to identify the source of the eukaryotic organisms. The feasibility of this method was confirmed using the laboratory-reared phyllosoma larvae of the Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus jap onicus that were fed either with common mussel Mytilus edulis gonads or with Artemia nauplii exclusively. Among the 804 clones isolated from five wild-caught mid-to late-stage phyllosoma larvae (three palinurids and two scyllarids), 0–132 clones per sample possessed restriction profiles distinct from those of the hosts. The Cnidaria and Urochordata DNA were identified from both the palinurid and the scyllarid larvae, which were thought to be prey animals for the mid- to late-stage phyllosoma larvae.