Molecular arguments for splitting of Schistosoma intercalatum, into two distinct species

@article{Pags2001MolecularAF,
  title={Molecular arguments for splitting of Schistosoma intercalatum, into two distinct species},
  author={J R Pag{\`e}s and Patrick Durand and Vaughan R. Southgate and Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuent{\'e} and Joseph Jourdane},
  journal={Parasitology Research},
  year={2001},
  volume={87},
  pages={57-62}
}
Abstract The taxonomic status of the two known strains of Schistosoma intercalatum, the Lower Guinea strain (originating from Edea, Cameroon) and the Zaire strain (originating from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire) was examined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Two additional species within the S. haematobium group, S. haematobium and S. mattheei, were included in the study. DNA was extracted from four male and four female worms of each species and… 
A phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes supports the division of Schistosoma intercalatum into two separate species
TLDR
Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial data demonstrates a clear dichotomy between the 2 purported strains of Schistosoma intercalatum and it is proposed that they should be treated as distinct taxa.
Recent studies on Schistosoma intercalatum: taxonomic status, puzzling distribution and transmission foci revisited.
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The competitive sexual processes acting among human schistosomes show that S. haematobium and S. mansoni are always competitively dominant over S. intercalatum, and three kinds of transmission foci are distinguished, which may help to facilitate the spread of this strain.
Interactions between Schistosoma intercalatum (Zaire strain) and S. mansoni
TLDR
Mating competition between these species and the ability of males of both species to effect a change of mate by pulling paired females away from their partners was indicated, suggesting that S. mansoni is competitively dominant to S.intercalatum in sequential infections but to a lesser extent than for S. intercalatum (Lower Guinea).
Experimental evidence of hybrid breakdown between the two geographical strains of Schistosoma intercalatum
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The sterility of the F4 hybrid sporocyst supports the concept of the existence of 2 distinct taxa, and there is a post-zygotic barrier in the crosses of S.intercalatum Zaire and S. intercalatum Cameroon from the F2 generations onwards.
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Biological factors central to the transmission of schistosomes, including cercarial emergence rhythms and interactions with other parasites and abiotic factors including temperature, rainfall, water velocity, desiccation and salinity are shown to impact on the intermediate host-parasite relationship.
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This is the first molecular identification of S. mattheei from free-ranging baboons in Zambia and it may affect other wildlife species and humans that live in close proximity to baboons.
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The formation of mating pairs by males and females of Schistosoma spp. in the liver or hepatic portal system of their definitive host is a requirement for male and female growth and sexual
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The authors suggest that a combination of the new antischistosomal drug RO15-5458 and Praziquantel on different strains of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice should be used for treatment of schistosomiasis.
Schistosomiasis with a Focus on Africa
TLDR
There is a need to evaluate the present status of African schistosomiasis, primarily caused by Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, and the factors affecting the disease as the basis for developing more effective control and elimination strategies in the future.
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