Molecular and chiral analyses of some protein amino acid derivatives in the Murchison and Murray meteorites

  title={Molecular and chiral analyses of some protein amino acid derivatives in the Murchison and Murray meteorites},
  author={Sandra Pizzarello and George Cooper},
  journal={Meteoritics \& Planetary Science},
— The varied organic suite extracted from the Murchison meteorite contains several amino acids that are common to the biosphere. Some of these have been found to be non-racemic, but the indigenous nature of their L-enantiomeric excesses has been subject to debate in view of possible terrestrial contamination. We have investigated two amino acids of common terrestrial and meteoritic occurrence, alanine and glutamic acid, and assessed their indigenous enantiomeric ratios in the Murchison and… Expand
The deuterium enrichment of individual amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites: A case for the presolar distribution of biomolecule precursors
The δD values of over 40 amino acids and two pyridine carboxylic acids of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have been obtained by compound-specific isotopic analyses. For compounds with no knownExpand
Nonracemic isovaline in the Murchison meteorite : Chiral distribution and mineral association
Abstract The enantiomeric and carbon-isotopic composition of the amino acid isovaline have been analyzed in several samples of the Murchison meteorite and one sample of the Murray meteorite. lExpand
Unusual Nonterrestrial L-proteinogenic Amino Acid excesses in the Tagish Lake Meteorite
The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquidExpand
Enrichment of Non-Terrestrial L-Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Aqueous Alteration on the Tagish Lake Meteorite Parent Body
The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquidExpand
Assessing the origins of aliphatic amines in the Murchison meteorite from their compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition
The study of meteoritic organic compounds provides a unique window into the chemical inventory of the early Solar System and prebiotic chemistry that may have been important for the origin of life onExpand
Distribution and stable isotopic composition of amino acids from fungal peptaibiotics: assessing the potential for meteoritic contamination.
It is shown that the relatively simple distribution of the C(4) and C(5) amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites, and potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungan peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids. Expand
Iminodicarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite: Evidence of Strecker reactions
Abstract α-Amino acids and α-hydroxy acids are well known constituents of several carbonaceous meteorites. One proposed mechanism of their formation is the reactions of CN−, NH3, aldehydes andExpand
The carbon isotopic distribution of Murchison amino acids
Abstract The δ 13 C values of thirty-four individual amino acids and two pyridine carboxylic acids have been obtained fromthe Murchison meteorite. They were found to range from +4.9 to +52.8‰, withExpand
Nitrogen-containing compounds in two CR2 meteorites: 15N composition, molecular distribution and precursor molecules
Abstract Amino acids, amines and aldehydes were obtained from the water extracts of two CR2 carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica and analyzed for their molecular and 15 N isotopic content. TheseExpand
The fate of amino acids during simulated meteoritic impact.
The data indicate that impact shock may act as a selective filter to the delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids via carbonaceous chondrites through artificial meteorites composed of saponite clay. Expand


Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite
Early determinations of the amino acid distribution in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite revealed unusual amino acids, including isovaline (Ival), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-Aiba) andExpand
Non-racemic amino acids in the Murray and Murchison meteorites.
The alpha-methyl-alpha-amino alkanoic acids could have been significant in the origin of terrestrial homochirality given their resistance to racemization and the possibility for amplification of their enantiomeric excesses suggested by the strong tendency of their polymers to form chiral secondary structure. Expand
On the reported optical activity of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite
In analyses of extracts from the Murchison meteorite (a carbonaceous chondrite), Engel and Nagy1 reported an excess of L-enantiomers for several protein amino acids but found that the non-proteinExpand
Enantiomeric Excesses in Meteoritic Amino Acids
Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analyses of the four stereoisomers of 2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid obtained from the Murchison meteorite show that the L enantiomer occurs in excess, indicative of an asymmetric influence on organic chemical evolution before the origin of life. Expand
α-Hydroxycarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite
A VARIETY of indigenous organic compounds have been detected in carbonaceous meteorites1–6, and of these, the amino acids have been the most extensively studied1,7–11. In addition to the amino acidsExpand
Isotopic evidence for extraterrestrial non- racemic amino acids in the Murchison meteorite
It is shown that individual amino-acid enantiomers from Murchison are enriched in 15N relative to their terrestrial counterparts, so confirming an extraterrestrial source for an L-enantiomer excess in the Solar System that may predate the origin of life on the Earth. Expand
Linear and cyclic aliphatic carboxamides of the Murchison meteorite: hydrolyzable derivatives of amino acids and other carboxylic acids.
The presence of an extensive suite of amides in a CM chondrite appears to be consistent with the interstellar-parent body formation hypothesis for the organic compounds of these meteorites, and suggests the possibility of further chemical evolution of meteorite amino acids by thermal polymerization. Expand
Carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in the Murchison meteorite
The amino acids in the Murchison meteorite are enriched in 13C, indicating an extraterrestrial origin, and Alanine is not racemic, and the 13C enrichment of its D- and L-enantiomers implies that the excess of the L- enantiomer is indigenous rather than terrestrial contamination, suggesting that optically active materials were present in the early Solar System before life began. Expand
Purines and triazines in the Murchison meteorite
Abstract Two samples of the Murchison C2 chondrite were examined for organic nitrogen compounds, using mass spectrometry as well as paper and thin-layer chromatography. Under mild extractionExpand
The Strecker synthesis as a source of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites: deuterium retention during synthesis.
Under the conditions of the Strecker reaction using deuterium labeled aldehydes and ketones, unlabeled amino acids are also formed by an HCN polymerization route indicating multiple pathways for the synthesis of amino acids in meteorites. Expand