Molecular and Genomic Data Identify the Closest Living Relative of Primates

  title={Molecular and Genomic Data Identify the Closest Living Relative of Primates},
  author={Jan E. Janecka and Webb Miller and Tom H. Pringle and Frank Wiens and Annette Zitzmann and Kristofer M. Helgen and Mark S Springer and William J. Murphy},
  pages={792 - 794}
A full understanding of primate morphological and genomic evolution requires the identification of their closest living relative. In order to resolve the ancestral relationships among primates and their closest relatives, we searched multispecies genome alignments for phylogenetically informative rare genomic changes within the superordinal group Euarchonta, which includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews). We also constructed phylogenetic trees from 14… 
Conserved sequences identify the closest living relatives of primates
The phylogeny showed Cercopithecinae to have low levels of nucleotide divergence, especially for Papionini, and gibbons to have a high rate of divergence, and the MCMCtree comprehensively updated divergence dates of early evolution of Primatomorpha and Primates.
A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates
The resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.
Estimating the phylogeny and divergence times of primates using a supermatrix approach
This work presents an up-to-date, comprehensive estimate of the structure and tempo of primate evolutionary history, using Bayesian phylogenetic methods to analyze data supermatrices from 219 species across 67 genera and 3 nuclear genes from 26 genera.
Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates
Large genetic differences between many geographically isolated populations that may result in a >300% increase in the number of recognized colugo species are identified and conservation units to mitigate future losses of this enigmatic mammalian order are identified.
Resolution among major placental mammal interordinal relationships with genome data imply that speciation influenced their earliest radiations
The narrow temporal window within which some placental divergences took place suggests that inconsistencies and limited resolution of the mammalian tree may have their natural explanation in speciation processes such as lineage sorting, introgression from species hybridization or hybrid speciation.
Molecular Evidence of Primate Origins and Evolution
In this chapter, the most recent molecular evidence on the higher level relationships of primates is reviewed, from their nearest interordinal relatives to relationships among families and some subfamilies, and presents the most recently published estimates of divergence times.
Phylogenomics of primates and their ancestral populations.
This Perspective lifts the hood on the conventional tree-like representation of the phylogenetic relationships between species, to expose the population-genetic processes that operate along its branches and discusses remaining challenges and future prospects at this nexus of phylogenetics, population genetics, and genomics.
Primate phylogenomics uncovers multiple rapid radiations and ancient interspecific introgression
New reference genome assemblies for three Old World Monkey species are presented and strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches are used to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages.
Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of mammals
It is proposed that near-simultaneous divisions of continents leading to isolated Africa, South America, and Laurasia caused nearly concomitant divergence of the ancient placental ancestor into 3 lineages, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria, ≈120 Ma.


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The potential weaknesses of limited character and taxon sampling are addressed in a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of 64 species sampled across all extant orders of placental mammals, providing new insight into the pattern of the early placental mammal radiation.
Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.
The genome sequence assemblies of human, armadillo, elephant, and opossum are analyzed to identify informative coding indels that would serve as rare genomic changes to infer early events in placental mammal phylogeny and suggest Afrotheria and Xenarthra diverged from other placental mammals approximately 103 (95-114) million years ago.
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Significant differences between the findings and those of recent investigators include the dissociation of Pholidota from Xenarthra and the plesiomorphous position of Lipotyphla within Epitheria.
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  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1991
Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene give evidence that primates, tree shrews, and flying lemurs have a recent common ancestor but that bats are genealogically distant, and the monophyletic origin of bats is supported.
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Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals
Two independent molecular data sets, having aligned lengths of DNA of 5,708 and 2,947 base pairs, respectively, are analysed for all orders of placental mammals to resolve placental orders into four groups: Xenarthra, Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchonta plus Glires.
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Crown-group Eutheria may have their most recent common ancestry in the Southern Hemisphere (Gondwana), and placental phylogeny is investigated using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods and a 16.4-kilobase molecular data set.
Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates
A new statistical method is presented, based on an estimate of species preservation derived from a model of the diversification pattern, that suggests a Cretaceous last common ancestor of primates, approximately 81.5 Myr ago, close to the initial divergence time inferred from molecular data.
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