Anticancer activity of calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through downregulation of cyclin D1 via inducing proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells
Cyclin D1 is frequently overexpressed in human neoplasias by gene rearrangement and amplification. In addition, Ras, PTEN and beta-catenin appear to modulate cyclin D1 levels. Since the causes of cyclin D1 overexpression are poorly understood in EC, we investigated whether or not this alteration is due to cyclin D1 gene amplification or to RAS, PTEN and beta-catenin mutation. We analyzed cyclin D1 expression in 18 AEHs, 65 EECs and 27 NEECs by immunohistochemistry as well as CCND1 gene amplification by FISH. In EECs, mutations in K-RAS, PTEN, beta-catenin and CCND1 were studied by PCR-SSCP and sequencing and MSI was evaluated by analyzing BAT-25 and BAT-26 microsatellites. Contingency tests were used to evaluate the relationships between variables. Cyclin D1 overexpression was not observed in AEHs but was present in 13.8% of EECs and 11.2% of NEECs (p = 0.031). CCND1 amplification was more frequent in NEECs (26.3%) than in EECs (2.1%) (p = 0.002). In EECs, cyclin D1 overexpression was not associated with mutations in K-RAS, PTEN or beta-catenin. However, in EECs with beta-catenin mutations, cyclin D1 was expressed mainly by cells expressing beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus but not in those with membranous expression. Finally, cyclin D1 overexpression was associated with MSI (p = 0.047). The molecular alterations associated with cyclin D1 overexpression differ in the 2 clinicopathologic types of EC. Cyclin D1 overexpression is associated with gene amplification in NEECs and with nucleocytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin and MSI in EECs.