Molecular Phylogeny, Revised Higher Classification, and Implications for Conservation of Endangered Hawaiian Leaf-Mining Moths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Philodoria)1

@article{Johns2016MolecularPR,
  title={Molecular Phylogeny, Revised Higher Classification, and Implications for Conservation of Endangered Hawaiian Leaf-Mining Moths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Philodoria)1},
  author={Chris A Johns and Matthew R. Moore and Akito Y. Kawahara},
  journal={Pacific Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={70},
  pages={361 - 372}
}
Abstract: The leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is composed of 30 described species, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Philodoria is known to feed on 10 families of endemic Hawaiian host plants, with several species recorded only from threatened or endangered hosts. Beyond their dependence on these plants, little is known of their evolutionary history and conservation status. We constructed a molecular phylogeny of Philodoria to assess… 
A molecular phylogeny and revised higher‐level classification for the leaf‐mining moth family Gracillariidae and its implications for larval host‐use evolution
TLDR
An exploratory mapping of larval host‐use traits on the phylogeny shows strong conservation of modes of leaf mining but much higher lability of associations with host plant orders and families, suggesting that host shifts could play a significant role in gracillariid diversification.
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New taxonomic and biological data on a complex of gracillariid moths in the endemic genus Philodoria Walsingham, 1907 that are associated with Myrsine in the Hawaiian Islands, United States are provided.
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It is found that, in contrast to earlier views, a substantial fraction of Hawaiian insect clades colonized the archipelago prior to the formation of the current high islands (5.1 Ma), and a positive relationship between clade age and species richness in Hawaiian insects is found, but with a great deal of variance that is likely explained by aspects of ecology and clade-specific factors.
Diel behavior in moths and butterflies: a synthesis of data illuminates the evolution of temporal activity
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A molecular phylogeny and revised higher‐level classification for the leaf‐mining moth family Gracillariidae and its implications for larval host‐use evolution
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