Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance – Part I

  title={Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance – Part I},
  author={Alison J. Baylay and Laura J. V. Piddock and Mark A. Webber},
  journal={Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics – From Molecules to Man},

Environmental complexity is more important than mutation in driving the evolution of latent novel traits in E. coli

The experiments show that the selection pressure provided by an environment can be more important for the evolution of novel traits than the mutational supply experienced by a wild-type and a mutator strain of E. coli.

Antibacterial Modes of Herbal Flavonoids Combat Resistant Bacteria

This review focuses on the antibacterial modes of herbal flavonoids, and discusses the associated functional groups of flavonoid compounds and highlights recent pharmacological activities against diverse resistant bacteria to provide the candidate drugs for the clinical infection.

Nanoantibiotics: Functions and Properties at the Nanoscale to Combat Antibiotic Resistance

How to exploit the fundamental physical and chemical properties of NPs to restore the efficacy of conventional antibiotics is discussed, which may provide an understanding in preventing future outbreaks caused by antibiotic resistance and in developing successful nAbts.

Novel Detection of Nasty Bugs, Prevention Is Better than Cure

Aptamer-based biosensors have demonstrated specific, time-efficient and simple detection, highlighting the likelihood that they could be used in a similar way to detect HAI-causing bacteria.

Molecular detection of chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance (cfr) genes among linezolid resistant MRSA isolates in Sokoto State, Nigeria

The cfr gene was found among the studied LR-MRSA strains and if cfr-mediated linezolid resistance is not properly checked, its phenotypic expression may result in an outbreak of multiple antibiotic resistant strains.

Relation to enterocins and herbal extracts of fecal hemolytic Escherichia coli from domestic ducks detected with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

Results indicate further benefit application of enterocins and herbal extracts to prevent/reduce problems caused with E. coli.



Proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems

Whether the normal physiological role of the multidrug efflux systems is to protect the cell from toxic compounds or whether they fulfil primary functions unrelated to drug resistance and only efflux multiple drugs fortuitously or opportunistically is discussed.

Conjugative transposons: an unusual and diverse set of integrated gene transfer elements

Conjugative transposons have a surprisingly broad host range, and they probably contribute as much as plasmids to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in some genera of disease-causing bacteria.

FosB, a Cysteine-Dependent Fosfomycin Resistance Protein under the Control of ςW, an Extracytoplasmic-Function ς Factor in Bacillus subtilis

It is demonstrated that the Bacillus subtilis fosB(yndN) gene encodes a fosfomycin resistance protein, which is a metallothiol transferase related to the FosA class of Mn(2+)-dependent glutathione transferases but with a preference for Mg(2+) and L-cysteine as cofactors.

The Basis for Resistance to β-Lactam Antibiotics by Penicillin-binding Protein 2a of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus*

Penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of Staphylococcus aureus is refractory to inhibition by available β-lactam antibiotics, resulting in resistance to these antibiotics. The strains of S. aureus

Towards a structural biology of bacterial conjugation

The structure of F‐pilin, the subunit of which F‐ pili are composed, is reviewed and a model of how these domains might be arranged in filament subunits is presented.

Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased accumulation and DNA gyrase protection.

  • J. Ruiz
  • Biology
    The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • 2003
Two mechanisms of quinolone resistance have been established to date: alterations in the targets ofQuinolones, and decreased accumulation due to impermeability of the membrane and/or an overexpression of efflux pump systems.

LmrS Is a Multidrug Efflux Pump of the Major Facilitator Superfamily from Staphylococcus aureus

The highest relative increase in MIC, 16-fold, was observed for linezolid and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPCL), followed by an 8-fold increase for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol.

Characterization of In53, a Class 1 Plasmid- and Composite Transposon-Located Integron of Escherichia coli Which Carries an Unusual Array of Gene Cassettes

Further characterization of the genetic environment of the gene encoding the Escherichia coli extended-spectrum beta-lactamase revealed the presence of a plasmid-located class 1 integron, In53, which carried eight functional resistance gene cassettes in addition to bla(VEB-1), the first description of an integron located on a composite transposon.

Antimicrobial resistance to linezolid.

  • Venkata G MekaH. Gold
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2004
Although resistance to linezolid remains uncommon, the development of resistance by clinical isolates should prompt increased attention to susceptibility testing for this agent and should be taken into account in consideration of the therapeutic use of this drug.