1 Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-alimentari, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Correspondence to: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org AbStrAct Coat colour in Sus scrofa has been the matter of pioneering genetics studies carried out at the beginning of the last century. Since then, classical genetics studies have assumed that several loci affect this trait in pigs. With the advent of molecular genetics it was possible to identify genes and mutations affecting coat colours and patterns in pigs. Variability in several genes have been shown to affect pigmentation in this species. However, only two of them might play major roles in determining coat colour variation in Mediterranean pig breeds or populations: melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, Extension locus) and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT, Dominant White locus). Other genes (ASIP, TYRP1, EDNRB, KITLG and OCA2) might affect coat colour in few breeds/populations or could modify the effect of the two major genes. Polymorphisms in the MC1R and KIT genes can be also used to authenticate mono-breed products obtained from local pig breeds.