Epidemiology of Rotavirus-Norovirus Co-Infection and Determination of Norovirus Genogrouping among Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of rotavirus disease and to investigate the genotypes of rotavirus strains causing acute gastroenteritis among children aged <5 years old in Marvdasht, Iran. METHODS One hundred and forty-one children, aged 1 month to 5 years, afflicted with severe diarrhea were enrolled during January 2007 to December 2008. Their stool samples were studied with enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for group A rotaviruses. Rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped by the Nested RT-PCR using different types of specific primers. FINDINGS Out of total collected samples rotavirus infection was detected in 40 (28.37%). Of the rotavirus episodes, 72.91% occurred during the first 2 years of life (P=0.038). The highest prevalence of infection was identified in summer (52.50%) and the lowest in winter (7.50%). The most common clinical features included diarrhea (96.25%), vomiting (82.50%) and fever (45.0%). Mixed genotypes were the predominant G type (60.0%), followed by non-typeable (12.50%), G2 (12.50%), G4 (10.0%) and G1 (5.0%) genotypes. G3/G8 mixed infection is the first of these rotavirus genotypes to be reported in Iran. CONCLUSION Regarding high frequency of rotavirus infection, continuous surveillance is needed to inform diarrhea prevention programs as well as to provide information about the occurrence of new rotavirus strains. This will assist policy makers in decision making on rotavirus vaccine introduction.