Molecular Confirmation of the Origin and Invasive Status of West Indian Raccoons

  title={Molecular Confirmation of the Origin and Invasive Status of West Indian Raccoons},
  author={Kristofer M. Helgen and Jes{\'u}s E. Maldonado and Don E. Wilson and Sandra D. Buckner},
Abstract Raccoons occur on a number of islands in the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. Zooarcheological studies have long suggested that these animals are not native to the West Indies. Originally, Caribbean populations were described as endemic insular species Procyon maynardi (Bahamas), P. minor (Guadeloupe), and P. gloveralleni (Barbados), a classification that was recognized throughout much of the 20th century. More recently, studies of qualitative morphology and a review… 

Genetics Reveal the Origin and Timing of a Cryptic Insular Introduction of Muskrats in North America

This is the first genetic study of an introduced muskrat population within US borders and of any island musk rat population, and provides an important contrast with other studies of introduced Muskrat populations worldwide.

Species limits and distribution of the Malagasy carnivoran genus Eupleres (Family Eupleridae)

It is demonstrated that these two forms are highly distinctive morphologically and can be readily distinguished from each another, and are recognized as distinct species, E. goudotii and E. major.

Recent invasion and status of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in Spain

The data confirmed the spread of feral raccoons throughout this region, where the species has already colonized about 100 km of streams and rivers, and the first approximation for spatial movement and habitat use analyses in Spain is presented.

Phylogeography of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in the eastern United States

The hypothesis that gray foxes 1st colonized the Northeast during a historical period of hemisphere-wide warming, which coincided with the range expansion of deciduous forest, supports the hypothesis thatgray foxes experienced a post-Pleistocene range expansion.

Limited mitochondrial DNA diversity is indicative of a small number of founders of the German raccoon (Procyon lotor) population

The results support the notions that the population was founded by a small number of females and that the German raccoons originate from two separate release events in central and eastern Germany and provide evidence for the presence of a distinct population in Saxony, eastern Germany.

Predicting the potential invasive range of raccoon in the world

ABSTRACT Invasive alien species are considered to be one of the most important causes for the extinction and the reason for diminishing of the wild native species. Considering that nowadays the

Uncovering discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary history in Florida raccoons

Evidence of reduced genetic diversity in island populations compared with their mainland counterparts is provided using both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, which demonstrate that haplotype diversity, allelic richness, and heterozygosity are significantly reduced in island sites.

Genetic population structure of invasive raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan: Unique phenomenon caused by pet escape or abandonment

The current results represent a unique and complex phenomenon of pet escape/abandonment in Hokkaido: i.e., genetically related colonies were introduced into multiple regions as founder events, resulting in the current state in which raccoons are not clearly genetically differentiated even 40 years after introduction.

Procyon pygmaeus (Carnivora: Procyonidae)

P. pygmaeus is a procyonid that is endemic to Cozumel Island, Mexico and is listed as “Critically Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Is the raccoon (Procyon lotor) out of control in Europe?

  • Iván Salgado
  • Environmental Science
    Biodiversity and Conservation
  • 2018
The northern raccoon (Procyon lotor) is an invasive species in Europe and poses a serious threat to indigenous biodiversity and human health. Raccoons can also cause important economic losses.



Taxonomic status and conservation relevance of the raccoons (Procyon spp.) of the West Indies

All three West Indian raccoon populations are the result of humansponsored introductions from the eastern U.S.A. that have occurred in the past few centuries, and these animals should not be considered either conservation priorities or recent losses of biodiversity in the Caribbean.

Is the Guadeloupean racoon (Procyon minor) really an endemic species? New insights from molecular and chromosomal analyses

Comparison of the control region variability within Procyon with intra- and interspecific variability observed in other Carnivores, clearly strengthens the hypothesis that P. minor is conspecific with P. lotor, and implies that the taxonomic status of the Guadeloupean racoon should be revised.

Les mammifères terrestres non volants des Antilles françaises et l'introduction récente d'un écureuil

Since the first human settlements circa 4000 B.P., all available data suggest that the terrestrial mammal fauna of the French West Indies was totally replaced, bats taken apart. All endemic species

Fossil vertebrates from the Bahamas

Olson, Storrs L., editor. Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 48, 65 pages, 12 figures, 1982.•The three papers in this volume summarize the previous

Genetic differentiation in the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., and the problem of taxonomic status.

It is found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the X-linked rDNA has two distinct sequences with three fixed nucleotide differences; it is also found that no heterozygotes are detected at these three sites, even in areas of sympatry of the two ITS types.


—The Pleistocene and Hobceoe fommD record of West Indian birds and mammals u, briefly reviewed, wi± emphasis cm the Greater Antmes; as yet, almost nothing is known of vertebrate fossils in the Leaser

Extinction and the zoogeography of West Indian land mammals

The timing and causes of extinctions of West Indian land mammals during three time intervals covering the last 20000 years (late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Amerindian, and post-Columbian) are

The cane toad's (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus) increasing ability to invade Australia is revealed by a dynamically updated range model

A dynamically updated statistical model is developed to predict the growing extent of cane toad range based on their current distribution in Australia and demonstrates that Australian cane toads may already have the ability to spread across an area that almost doubles their current range and that triples projections based upon their native distribution.

Recent Discoveries of Fossil Vertebrates in the West Indies and Their Bearing on the Origin of the Antillean Fauna

Ten or twelve years ago almost nothing was known of the extinct vertebrates of the West Indies. There was good reason to suppose that a considerable fauna had existed, and that if found it would be a

Fossil vertebrates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: Evidence for late Holocene human-caused extinctions in the West Indies.

Nine taxa of lizards, snakes, birds, bats, and rodents are either completely extinct or have never been recorded historically from Antigua, so rendering unreliable the data traditionally used in ecological and biogeographic studies that consider only the historically known fauna.