Molecular Analyses of Oral Polio Vaccine Samples

  title={Molecular Analyses of Oral Polio Vaccine Samples},
  author={Hendrik N. Poinar and Melanie Kuch and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
  pages={743 - 744}
It has been suggested that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and thus the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it causes, was inadvertently introduced to humans by the use of an oral polio vaccine (OPV) during a vaccination campaign launched by the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA, in the Belgian Congo in 1958 and 1959. The “OPV/AIDS hypothesis” suggests that the OPV used in this campaign was produced in chimpanzee kidney epithelial cell cultures rather than in monkey kidney… 
Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity.
Detailed analyses of two samples of OPV, CHAT 10A-11 and CHAT 6039/Yugo, which were used in early human trials of poliovirus vaccination, provide no evidence to support the contention that poliov virus vaccination was responsible for the introduction of HIV into humans and sparking the AIDS pandemic.
Lentivirus infections and mechanisms of disease resistance in chimpanzees.
The history of HIV-1 infection in this species as well as the observations that have led to some of the current leading hypotheses regarding the resistance to AIDS in naturally infected African primates are reviewed.
The Evolution of Primate Lentiviruses and the Origins of AIDS
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized in 1981 (Blattner, 1991) and has become the most globally devastating of the emerging infectious diseases threatening human health
Primate-to-Human Retroviral Transmission in Asia
Concerns that persons who work at or live around monkey temples are at risk for infection with SFV are raised, given the first reported transmission to a human of simian foamy virus from a free-ranging population of nonhuman primates in Asia.
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in New World Monkeys in Peru
This paper uses the minimally invasive OSP assay, which includes buccal swab collection followed by amplification of the IS6110 repetitive nucleic acid sequence specific to M. tuberculosis complex subspecies, to detect the bacteria in the mouths of Peruvian New World monkeys.
Non è Vero, è Mal Trovato: Polio Vaccine is not the cause of HIV
This article replies to recent publications, and refers to the body of accumulated information, about an oral polio vaccine tested in the early 1960s in the then Belgian Congo that was contaminated with chimpanzee SIV and was the source of HIV-1 Group M for humans.
The Origins of AIDS
Jacques Pepin proposes that during the colonial era in central and western Africa, the extensive re-use of needles and syringes in medical practice and campaigns against endemic tropical diseases amplified the early spread of HIV-1 after cross-species transmission from chimpanzees.
Analysis of a library of macaque nuclear mitochondrial sequences confirms macaque origin of divergent sequences from old oral polio vaccine samples
Phylogenetic analysis showed that the evolutionary trajectories of numts and bona fide mtDNA haplotypes do not overlap with the signal exception of the host species; mtDNA fragments are continually crossing over into the germ line.
Polio vaccines exonerated
One theory about the origin of the AIDS pandemic is that the virus responsible, HIV, was transmitted to humans from chimpanzees through contaminated polio vaccine. That theory fails some crucial
Museums and disease: using tissue archive and museum samples to study pathogens.
  • K. Tsangaras, A. Greenwood
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • 2012
The advantages, problems, and failures of ancient microbiological research are reviewed, finding that studies performed under controlled conditions and following stringent ancient DNA protocols can and have yielded reliable and often surprising results.


CHAT oral polio vaccine was not the source of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M for humans.
  • S. Plotkin
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2001
Testimony by eyewitnesses, historical documents of the time, epidemiological analysis, and analysis of ancillary phylogenetic, virological, and polymerase chain reaction data all indicate that the hypothesis that scientists who worked with the CHAT type 1 attenuated poliomyelitis strain had covertly prepared the vaccine in chimpanzee kidney cells contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus is false.
Molecular Analyses of Oral Polio Vaccine Samples
ICR, F6), they were injected into blastocysts derived from the agouti cross B6D2F1 3 ICR. 25. The line EGFP Tg contains a transgene expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the
Intratypic serodifferentiation of polioviruses
The intratypic serodifferentiation technique described by Wecker has been applied to the antigenic analysis of a number of attenuated and virulent strains within the same poliovirus type, and different pools of the same attenuated strain were found to be serologically identical, whereas other attenuatedand virulent viruses could be distinguished antigenically from one another.
Insertions and duplications of mtDNA in the nuclear genomes of Old World monkeys and hominoids
Two divergent cytochrome b nuclear pseudogenes from orangutan cellular DNA are amplified and sequenced using oligonucleotide primers designed to match conserved regions of mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to find the source of DNA contamination of 'ancient' and forensic DNA.
The River: A Journey to the Source of HIV and AIDS
The thesis: that the origins of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 result from contamination of poliovirus vaccines in the last half of the 1950s by simian immunodeficiency viruses of chimpanzees forAIDS-1, or mangabeys for HIV- 2, is presented in The River is wide.
Virus Maturation Involving Large Subunit Rotations and Local Refolding
The structure of bacteriophage HK97 capsid, Head-II, was recently solved by crystallography, revealing a catenated cross-linked topology and the inner surface of Prohead-II is negatively charged, suggesting that the transition is triggered electrostatically by DNA packaging.
The river : a journey back to the source of HIV and AIDS
Examines the possible source of HIV, analyzing a number of theories concerning its origins and investigating current scientific inquiries into HIV, AIDS, and the search for a cure.
Zischler for help and sharing of unpublished information. We thank the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for financial support
  • Infect. Dis
  • 2001