Molds, mycotoxins, and sick building syndrome

@article{Straus2009MoldsMA,
  title={Molds, mycotoxins, and sick building syndrome},
  author={David C. Straus},
  journal={Toxicology and Industrial Health},
  year={2009},
  volume={25},
  pages={617 - 635}
}
  • D. Straus
  • Published 1 October 2009
  • Medicine
  • Toxicology and Industrial Health
The following is a review of some of the work we have done since 2004 regarding the importance of molds and their mycotoxins in the phenomenon of sick building syndrome (SBS). In these studies we showed that the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins (MTM) of Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are easily dissociated from the surface of the organism as it grows and could therefore be consequently spread in buildings as the fungus experiences additional water events. We then showed that SC and Penicillium… 
The possible role of fungal contamination in sick building syndrome.
The following is a review of some of the work that we have done since 2007 regarding the importance of molds in the phenomenon of sick building syndrome (SBS). In these studies we first examined mold
Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit?
TLDR
The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production and the literature supporting this concept is reviewed.
Detection of Mycotoxins in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
TLDR
The presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection.
The Roles of Autoimmunity and Biotoxicosis in Sick Building Syndrome as a “Starting Point” for Irreversible Dampness and Mold Hypersensitivity Syndrome
TLDR
The corner feature of DMHS is acquired by dysregulation of the immune system in the direction of hypersensitivities (types I–IV) and simultaneous deprivation of immunity that manifests as increased susceptibility to infections.
The Antimicrobial Properties of Cedar Leaf (Thuja plicata) Oil; A Safe and Efficient Decontamination Agent for Buildings
TLDR
Cedar leaf oil shows promise as a prospective safe, green, broad-spectrum anti-microbial agent for decontamination of buildings, including the alleviation of sick building syndrome.
Disinfective Activity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Sulfate on Moulds
The aim of conducted research was the estimation of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate activity on selected mould strains. In the tests for the fungicidal acti vity, 6 working concentrations rangeing from
Molds and Mycotoxins in Autopsy Specimens in a Death Related to Fungal Pneumonia and Pancytopenia, Marijuana Usage and a Water-Damaged Home: A Case Report.
TLDR
Because the man was well before moving into the home, then became very ill and eventually expired it is concluded that the home exposure was most likely the principle cause of illness and death.
Molds and Respiratory Allergy-Part 1
TLDR
The genera of molds that cause allergy and allergy-related problems most often are Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium, and the most frequently involved genera in children are Cladospora species in northern Europe and Alternaria species in the Mediterranean region and North America.
Isolation and Characterisation of Toxic Secondary Metabolites Produced by Black Mould
TLDR
This research investigates S. chartarum and the toxic secondary metabolites it produces, with special emphasis on satratoxin G and H, and the importance of genetics and the public health implications of mould contamination are discussed.
A year-round investigation of indoor airborne fungi in Croatia
TLDR
The excess of aeromycoparticles in the grain mill throughout the year may have represented a serious health risk to mill workers and monitoring should continue over a longer period.
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References

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Fungi and the indoor environment: their impact on human health.
Health and immunology study following exposure to toxigenic fungi (Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment.
TLDR
It is concluded that prolonged and intense exposure to toxigenic S. chartarum and other atypical fungi was associated with reported disorders of the respiratory and central nervous systems, reported Disorders of the mucous membranes and a few parameters pertaining to the cellular and humoral immune system, suggesting a possible immune competency dysfunction.
Detection of Airborne Stachybotrys chartarum Macrocyclic Trichothecene Mycotoxins in the Indoor Environment
TLDR
The data indicate that airborne macrocyclic trichothecenes can exist in Stachybotrys-contaminated buildings, and this should be taken into consideration in future indoor air quality investigations.
Localization of Satratoxin-G in Stachybotrys chartarum Spores and Spore-Impacted Mouse Lung Using Immunocytochemistry
TLDR
Observations indicate that satratoxin-G displays a high degree of cellular specificity with respect to its uptake in mouse lung and that the alveolar macrophages play an important role in the sequestration and immobilization of low concentrations of the toxin.
Detection of Trichothecene Mycotoxins in Sera from Individuals Exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum in Indoor Environments
TLDR
Data from this study suggest that trichothecene mycotoxins can be demonstrated in the tissues of certain individuals exposed to S. chartarum in contaminated buildings.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in aerosolized conidia of Stachybotrys atra
TLDR
Results establish that the conidia of S. atra contain trichothecene mycotoxins, and the inhalation of aerosols containing high concentrations of these conidia could be a potential hazard to health.
Protein Translation Inhibition by Stachybotrys chartarum Conidia with and without the Mycotoxin Containing Polysaccharide Matrix
TLDR
The data demonstrated that mycotoxins are not likely to be found exclusively in the carbohydrate matrix of the spores, therefore, mycotoxin removal from the spore surface can occur without significant loss of polysaccharide, and suggested that satratoxin are soluble in aqueous solutions without being bound to water-soluble moieties, such as the carbohydrate slime matrix.
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TLDR
Propagules of Penicillium and Stachybotrys species may be associated with sick building syndrome and the indoor air fungal profile that was similar to that outdoors.
Infant pulmonary hemorrhage in a suburban home with water damage and mold (Stachybotrys atra).
TLDR
As the link between the presence of Stachybotrys in the home and pulmonary hemorrhage in infants increases, further efforts should be made to educate physicians, health care providers, and new parents about the potential toxic effects of this mold.
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