Module-scale analysis of pressure retarded osmosis: performance limitations and implications for full-scale operation.

Abstract

We investigate the performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) at the module scale, accounting for the detrimental effects of reverse salt flux, internal concentration polarization, and external concentration polarization. Our analysis offers insights on optimization of three critical operation and design parameters--applied hydraulic pressure, initial… (More)
DOI: 10.1021/es503790k

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